Calendar and Summary for March 1939  
 
SUN   MON   TUE   WED   THU   FRI   SAT
            1   2   3   4
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12   13   14   15   16   17   18
19   20   21   22   23   24   25
26   27   28   29   30   31    
 
   
  February 1939 April 1939  
   
  Summary of Significant Events for March 1939  
   
  Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli was elected to the papacy, becoming Pius XII.  Marshall Josef Stalin outlined the Soviet Union's international position and said that the Soviet Union would look after her own affairs, not fight anyone else's battles.  In a sharp condemnation of the aggressive acts of Germany, Italy and Japan, Dmitry Manuilsky, Vice-President of the Comintern said that at Munich, the British and French had freed the hands of the aggressors.  German Chancellor Adolf Hitler invited Jozef Tiso, one of the leaders of the Slovak People's Party, to Berlin, where he offered Tiso the option of proclaiming the Slovak state and ceding from Czechoslovakia. After Tiso returned to Bratislava the Slovak Diet convened and unanimously declared Slovak independence from Czechoslovakia.  Carpatho-Ukraine declared independence from Czechoslovakia.  On March 15, Czechoslovakia ceased to exist as President Emil Hácha signed the document turning the country over to Germany and the German Army moved into Bohemia and Moravia. Hitler made entered Prague at the head of 10-vehicle convoy. The streets of Prague were deserted and there were no cheering crowds.  Hungary annexed the Czechoslovakian province of Carpatho-Ukraine.  British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain gave a speech in Birmingham in which he defended his part in the Munich Pact of September 1938 and finished by warning Germany that Great Britain would stand up to aggression.  The British government issued a White Paper, commonly called the MacDonald White Paper, which limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 10,000 a year for five years.  The Germans demanded that Lithuania give up the Klaipėda Region (also known as Memel Territory), which had been detached from Germany after World War I, or the Wehrmacht would invade Lithuania.  Colonel Józef Beck, the Polish foreign minister, rejected the British proposal of a consultative agreement between Poland, Great Britain, France, and the U.S.S.R. because he did not want to enter into any agreement that included the Soviet Union as a partner.  Plan Zachod was issued. The Poles partially mobilized their armed forces and began positioning four armies along their western border.  Romania and Germany signed a ten-year scheme for Romanian economic development.  With the unconditional surrender of the Miaja government, the Spanish Nationalists gained control of the last Loyalist strongholds in Madrid and Valencia. The members of the National Defense Council fled Spain ending the Spanish Civil War. General Francisco Franco and the Nationalist government immediately set up special tribunals to try hundreds of Republican leaders.  The British government pledged Anglo-French support if Germany threatened Polish independence.  
   
  Events occurring in March 1939 with no specific dates  
   
  The Atomic Bombs  
  Italian physicist Enrico Fermi described the recent fission experiments and their implication that uranium could be a potent energy source or explosive to a group of U.S. military officials in Washington including Rear Admiral Stanford C. Hooper, the Chief of Naval Operations. Fermi had trouble getting these officials to take him seriously. On one occasion, Fermi got no further than two young lieutenant commanders, who politely listened as he outlined his case in broken English, before kindly showing him to the door.
  Learn more about the American Atomic Bombs Program  
 
     
   
     
   
 

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