Calendar and Summary for August 1942  
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23   24   25   26   27   28   29
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  July 1942 September 1942  
  Summary of Significant Events for August 1942  
  Soviet forces deployed the newly raised formations of the 57th and 64th Armies west of Stalingrad in an attempt to slow the Germans.  Three Palestinian Jewish battalions and one Palestinian Arab battalion formed the Palestine Regiment.  Operation Watchtower began as U.S. Marines landed on Guadalcanal and other islands in the Solomon Islands.  The airstrip on Guadalcanal was captured by the Americans and renamed Henderson Airfield.  The All India Congress party adopted a resolution demanding the immediate withdrawal of the British Government from India and sanctioned nonviolent civil disobedience.  Six of the eight spies landed by Germany on the US eastern seaboard in June and July of 1942 were executed.  The Germans captured Maikop but not before the Soviets destroyed the oil installations there.  The Battle of Savo Island was fought off Guadalcanal with the Allies losing 4 heavy cruisers and withdrawing their half-unloaded transports.  The aircraft carrier HMS Eagle was sunk by the U-73 while escorting the Operation Pedestal convoy to Malta.  British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrived in Moscow for discussions with Soviet Marshal Josef Stalin.  Lt. General Bernard L. Montgomery was appointed General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, 8th Army in North Africa.  221 U.S. Marines conducted a raid on Makin Atoll.  German Chancellor Adolf Hitler issued Directive 46 ordering harsher measures against suspected of resistance in the East and increasing the power of the SS Special Units.  The Allies launched the unsuccessful major raid on the French port of Dieppe.  The P-51 "Mustang" made its combat debut over the skies of Dieppe.  German forces reached the outskirts of Stalingrad.  The Ichiki Detachment attack on the U.S. Marines’ positions on the Tenaru River was crushed.  Brazil declared war on Germany and Italy following the sinking of six Brazilian ships by the U-507.  1,000 aircraft from the Luftwaffe bombed Stalingrad turning the city into rubble.  U.S. and Japanese naval forces engaged in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons.  Japanese Marines unsuccessfully attacked the Australian base at Milne Bay.  Colonel General Georgy Zhukov was sent to take charge of the defense of Stalingrad.  Field Marshal Erwin Rommel called off his offensive at El Alamein.  114 ships (544,908 tons) were sunk and 17 ships (95,053 tons) were damaged by U-boats and mines during August 1942.  
  Events occurring in August 1942 with no specific dates  

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