Calendar and Summary for December 1942  
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6   7   8   9   10   11   12
13   14   15   16   17   18   19
20   21   22   23   24   25   26
27   28   29   30   31        
  November 1942 January 1943  
  Summary of Significant Events for December 1942  
  Axis convoys between Italy and Tunisia continued to be interdicted by British naval forces.  Gasoline rationing was extended to include the entire United States.  The first controlled nuclear reaction was successfully completed at the University of Chicago.  The first U.S. bombing raid of mainland Italy took place as the U.S. 9th Air Force bombed the harbor at Naples.  To commemorate the anniversary of the attack at Pearl Harbor, the United States launched the new battleship USS New Jersey (BB 62) along with 11 other ships.  On Guadalcanal, the 1st Marine Divisions was relieved by fresh troops from the U.S. Army 14th Corps.  The British 8th Army, under command of General Bernard L. Montgomery, started to advance through Libya after its halt for resupply and reorganization.  In a large operation named "Winter Storm", the Germans attempted to break through to its forces trapped in Stalingrad.  The code breakers at Bletchly Park, England succeeded in breaking the U-boat "Shark" Enigma key.  U.S. forces captured most of Buna but diehard Japanese forces still occupied strongholds.  British forces made attacks in the Arakan Valley in Burma.  U.S. forces on Guadalcanal began their assault on Mount Austen and met strong Japanese resistance.  French Admiral François Darlan was assassinated in Algiers, Algeria.  The Germans made a successful test fly the V-1 flying bomb at Peenemunde, Germany.  The Battle of the Barents Sea began between the German heavy cruisers SMS Admiral Hipper and SMS Lutzow and the Allied Arctic convoy JW-51B.  The Japanese High Command decided to evacuate Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.  63 ships (316,508 tons) were sunk and 13 ships (83,923 tons) were damaged by U-boats and mines during December 1942.  
  Events occurring in December 1942 with no specific dates  
  The Atomic Bombs  
  Dr. Vannevar Bush, the director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development which oversaw the Manhattan Project, provided U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt with an estimate placing the total cost for the Manhattan Project at $400 million (almost 5 times the previous estimate). Roosevelt would approve the expenditure.  
  Plans and contracts were made for the construction of an experimental reactor, plutonium separation plant, and electromagnetic separation facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.  

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