Events occurring on Friday, July 10, 1942  
  Diplomacy  
  Diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and the Soviet Union were renewed. It was considered that the two nations, both of which were fighting against the Axis as members of the United Nations, should be in full diplomatic accord with each other.  
   
  Military Conflict in North Africa  
  After days of deceptive movements of his forces, General Claude Auchinleck went on the offensive. The Australian 9th Division of the British XXX Corp hit the Italian Sabratha Division around Tell el Eisa along the coast road. The attack routed the Italians and threatened Field Marshal Erwin Rommel's HQ and supply lines and forced him to send reinforcements and to burn fuel to come to their aid.  
   
  Case Blau - The 1942 German Summer Offensive Against the Soviet Union  
  German forces captured Rossosh and established a bridgehead on the east bank of the Don River.  
   
  The Battle of the Atlantic  
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the abandoned Panamanian steam merchant El Capitan was torpedoed and sunk by the U-251, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Timm, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. The El Capitan had been attacked by several German Junkers Ju 88 aircraft of II. and III./KG 30 the day before. Of the ship’s complement, all 67 survived and were picked up by the armed trawler HMS Lord Austin (FY 220). The 5,255 ton El Capitan was carrying machinery, food, leather, ammunition and a deck cargo of tanks and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the abandoned American steam merchant Hoosier was torpedoed and sunk by the U-376, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich-Karl Marks, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. The Hoosier had been attacked by several German Junkers Ju 88 aircraft of II. and III./KG 30 the day before. Of the ship’s complement, all 53 survived and were picked up by the corvette HMS Poppy (K 213). The 5,060 ton Hoosier was carrying machinery, explosives and tanks as deck cargo and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  The American steam tanker Benjamin Brewster was torpedoed and sunk by the U-67, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Müller-Stöckheim, off the coast of Louisiana 60 miles west of Southwest Pass in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 25 died and 15 survived. The 5,950 ton Benjamin Brewster was carrying aviation gas and lubricating oil and was headed for Tampa, Florida.  
   
  The Southwest Pacific Theater  
  PBY Catalinas attempted to bomb the Japanese base in the Tulagi-Gavutu area but bad weather prompted the cancellation of the mission.  
   
  Weapons Advancement  
  A PBY Catalina, returning from a routine patrol, sighted a Mitsubishi A6M2 type 0 "Zero" carrier fighter upside-down in a bog on Akutan Island, Aleutians, where it has been since its forced landing on June 3, 1942. Salvage operations would begin July 12. This Zero eventually made its way to Naval Air Station, San Diego, Calif., where it was restored to flying condition. By late September 1942, it was involved in a series of flight tests and comparisons against the latest U.S. fighters. Instead of using matchsticks or surrogates, an actual Zero was then available to develop tactics for each allied aircraft.  
   
  Ships Commissioned  
  A ship's commissioning was when the ship was handed over, post fittings and trials, to the end user which, in this case, was a combatant navy.  
  The destroyer USS Coghlan (DD 606) was commissioned. Her first commander was Lt. Commander Benjamin F. Tompkins.  
   
  The minesweeping trawler HMS Sir Geraint (T 240) was commissioned. Her first commander was Skipper Jonathan C. Hodge.  
   
  The submarine HMS Shakespeare (P 221) was commissioned. Her first commander was Lt. Michael F. R. Ainslie.  
   
  The submarine U-186 was commissioned. Her first commander was Kapitänleutnant Siegfried Hesemann.  
     
   
  July 1942 Calendar  
   
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