Calendar and Summary for January 1944  
 
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  December 1943 February 1944  
   
  Summary of Significant Events for January 1944  
   
  Lebanon was recognized as an independent republic by France.  Allied forces landed at Saidor, New Guinea.  The 332d Fighter Group, composed of African-American pilots trained at the Tuskegee Army Airfield, Alabama, departed for Italy.  The 1st Ukrainian Front of the Red Army crossed the old Polish-Russian border in Volhynia.  The first mission of Operation Carpetbagger, supplying the resistance in occupied Europe by air, was flown.  The U.S. 8th Air Force concluded that the U.S. daylight strategic bombing program against Germany was threatened unless steps were taken to reduce the enemy's fighter force.  The Indian 5th Infantry Division captured the small port of Maungdaw, Burma, a critical port for Allied supplies on the Arakan front.  British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and French General Charles de Gaulle held a two-day wartime conference in Marrakesh, Morocco.  General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrived in London and assumed command of the European Theater.  The Red Army liberated Novgorod.  Stalin awarded the Order of Lenin to the men and women workers and the technical engineering workers of the construction of the Moscow Underground.  Operation Shingle, the Allied amphibious landing at Anzio and Nettuno, Italy, began.  The Soviets announced that Leningrad had been completely liberated by a two-week Red Army offensive.  A joint U.S. Army and U.S. Navy communiqué disclosed that the Japanese tortured, starved, or murdered 5,200 U.S. soldiers and many more Filipino troops taken after the fall of Bataan and Corregidor.  Major General John P. Lucas’ offensive out of the Anzio beachhead opened with disaster.  16 ships (85,706 tons) were sunk and 4 ships (16,901 tons) were damaged by U-boats during January 1944.  
   
  Events occurring in January 1944 with no specific dates  
   
  The Atomic Bombs  
  Ukrainian-American Harvard chemistry professor George Kistiakowsky arrived at Los Alamos, New Mexico to assist Dr. Seth Neddermeyer in implosion research. It became increasingly clear that Neddermeyer's academic research style was unsuited to directing a rapidly expanding research and engineering program.  
   
  The second Alpha racetrack of the Y-12 electromagnetic plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee was started and demonstrated maintenance problems similar to those that disabled the first.  
   
  Problems with developing suitable diffusion barriers led Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves to switch planned production to a new type of barrier, creating months of delays in equipping the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge for operation.  
   
  Dr. Philip Abelson, at the Naval Research Laboratory at the Philadelphia Naval Yard, began constructing a thermal diffusion uranium enrichment plant. Upon learning about the problems with the Manhattan Project's gaseous diffusion plant, he leaked information about his technology to Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer at Los Alamos.  
   
  Groves and Oppenheimer decided to plan for a fission bomb test (none was envisioned before this). Groves stipulated that the active material must be recoverable if a fizzle occurred, so the construction of Jumbo, a 214 ton steel container (25 ft x 12 ft), was authorized.
  Learn more about the American Atomic Bombs Program  
 
     
   
     
   
 

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