July 1940 Events of the Battle of the Atlantic  
  Overview  
  1 Allied war vessel was sunk by a U-boat.  
  1 Allied war vessel was sunk by the Luftwaffe.  
   
  1 U-boat was sunk by an Allied warship.  
  1 U-boat was scuttled after suffering damaging by both an Allied warship and aircraft.  
   
  39 Allied and neutral merchant ships were sunk by U-boats totaling 200,473 tons.  
  1 Allied merchant ship was sunk by the Luftwaffe totaling 2,136 tons.  
  2 Allied merchant ships were damaged by U-boats totaling 13,027 tons.  
   
  Naval Action in the Atlantic Ocean  
  Friday, July 5, 1940  
  The destroyer HMS Whirlwind (D 30) was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Wilhelm Rollmann, about 120 miles west of Lands End in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. 59 of the ship’s complement and the survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Westcott (D 47).  
   
  Saturday, July 27, 1940  
  The destroyer HMS Codrington (D 65) was bombed and sank by the Luftwaffe in Dover Harbour.  
   
  Sunday, July 28, 1940  
  There was a naval engagement in the south Atlantic Ocean between the German auxiliary cruiser Thor and the similar but less well armed British merchant cruiser Alcantara. The Thor was only lightly hit. The Alcantara was forced to break off and headed for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
   
  U-Boat Losses  
  Monday, July 1, 1940  
  The U-26, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinz Scheringer, was scuttled southwest of Ireland after suffering heavy damage by depth charges from the corvette HMS Gladiolus (K 34) and bombs from an Australian Sunderland aircraft. Of the ship’s complement, all 48 survived. During its career under two commanders the U-26 sank 11 merchant ships for a total of 48,645 tons and damaged 1 merchant ship for a total of 4,871 tons.  
   
  The U-102, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Harro von Klot-Heydenfeldt, was sunk in the North Atlantic southwest of Ireland by depth charges from the destroyer HMS Vansittart (D 64). All of the ship’s complement of 43 died. During its career under Kapitänleutnant von Klot-Heydenfeldt the U-102 sank 2 merchant ships for a total of 5,430 tons.  
   
  Attacks on Allied and Neutral Merchant Ships  
  Monday, July 1, 1940  
  Sailing with Convoy SL-36, the British steam merchant Clearton was torpedoed and sunk by the U-102, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Harro von Klot-Heydenfeldt, about 180 miles west of Ushant in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 8 died and 26 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Vansittart (D 64). The 5,219 ton Clearton was carrying cereals and was headed for Manchester, England.  
   
  The Greek steam merchant Adamastos, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Schuhart, was stopped by U-29 southwest of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The crew abandoned ship immediately when the U-boat surfaced nearby. The Germans then boarded the ship for fresh provisions and sank her by gunfire. Of the ship’s complement, all 25 survived. The 7,466 ton Adamastos was carrying wheat and was headed for Avonmouth, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SL-36, the British motor merchant Beignon was torpedoed and sunk by the U-30, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Fritz-Julius Lemp, about 300 miles west of Ushant in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 6 died and 111 survivors were picked up by the destroyers HMS Vesper (D 55) and HMS Windsor (D 42). The 5,218 ton Beignon was carrying passengers and wheat and was headed for Newcastle, England.  
   
  British Steam merchant Zarian was torpedoed and sunk by the U-26, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinz Scheringer, southwest of Ireland. The 4,871 ton Zarian was carrying ballast and was bound for Dakar, Senegal. The U-26 was sunk a few hours after this attack.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OA-175, the unarmed Dutch Steam merchant Amstelland was torpedoed and sunk by the U-65, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Gerrit von Stockhausen, approximately 380 miles southwest of Lands End. The 8,156 ton Amstelland was carrying ballast and was bound for Buenos Aires, Argentina.  
   
  Tuesday, July 2, 1940  
  The unescorted British steam passenger ship Arandora Star was torpedoed and sunk by the U-47, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Prien, northwest of Ireland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 805 died and 868 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMCS St. Laurent (H 83). The 15,501 ton Arandora Star was one of the largest merchant ships sunk during the war and was carrying 1299 internees and prisoners-of-war being deported from Britain and was headed for St. Johns, Canada.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy OB-176, the British motor tanker Athellaird was torpedoed and sunk by the U-29, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Schuhart, about 350 miles northwest of Cape Finisterre off the west coast Spain in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 42 survived and were picked up by the sloop HMS Sandwich (L 12). The 8,999 ton Athellaird was carrying ballast and was headed for Cuba.  
   
  The unescorted Panamanian steam merchant Santa Margarita was stopped by U-29 and sunk by gunfire in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 39 survived. The 4,919 ton Santa Margarita was carrying ballast and was headed for Hampton Roads, England.  
   
  Friday, July 5, 1940  
  Sailing with Convoy HX-52, the Canadian steam merchant Magog was torpedoed and then sunk by gunfire by the U-99, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Kretschmer, southwest of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 23 survived and were picked up by the Swedish merchant Fidra. The 2,053 ton Magog was carrying timber and was headed for Preston, England.  
   
  Saturday, July 6, 1940  
  The Egyptian steam merchant Angele Mabro was torpedoed and sunk by the U-30, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Fritz-Julius Lemp, west-southwest of Brest in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement died. The 3,154 ton Angele Mabro was carrying iron ore and was headed for Cardiff, Wales.  
   
  The unescorted Estonian steam merchant Vapper was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rollmann, south of Cape Clear, Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 32 survived. The 4,543 ton Vapper was carrying coal and was headed for Buenos Aires, Argentina.  
   
  Sunday, July 7, 1940  
  The unescorted Dutch steam tanker Lucrecia was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rollmann, about 100 miles west of Lands End, England in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 30 survivors were picked up by the Portuguese steam merchant Alfarrarede. The 2,584 ton Lucrecia was carrying fuel oil and was headed for Falmouth, England.  
   
  The unescorted Swedish steam merchant Bissen was torpedoed and sunk by the U-99, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Kretschmer, approximately 80 miles south of Cape Clear, Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 20 survived. The 1,514 ton Bissen was carrying pulp wood and pit props and was headed for Ridham Dock, England.  
   
  The British steam merchant Sea Glory was torpedoed and sunk by the U-99 approximately 80 miles south of Fastnet, Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 29 died. The 1,964 ton Sea Glory was carrying china clay and was headed for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  
   
  Monday, July 8, 1940  
  Sailing with Convoy HX-53, the British steam merchant Humber Arm was torpedoed and sunk by the U-99, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Kretschmer, 60 miles south of Fastnet, Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 43 survived and were picked up by the destroyers HMS Scimitar (H 21) and HMS Vanquisher (D 54). The 5,758 ton Humber Arm was carrying newsprint, steel, pulp, and lumber and was headed for Ellesmere Port, England.  
   
  Tuesday, July 9, 1940  
  The unescorted Estonian steam merchant Tiiu was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rollmann, southwest of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 20 survived and were picked up by a British fishing trawler. The 1,865 ton Tiiu was carrying general cargo, including food and naval stores and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Aylesbury was torpedoed and sunk by the U-43 approximately 200 miles southwest of Ireland. Of the ship’s complement, all 35 survived and were picked up by the destroyers HMS Harvester (H 19) and HMS Havelock (H 88). The 3,944 ton Aylesbury was carrying general cargo and grain and was headed for Avonmouth, England.  
   
  Wednesday, July 10, 1940  
  The Finnish steam merchant Petsamo was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rollmann, south of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 34 survived. The 4,596 ton Petsamo was carrying maize and grain and was headed for Cork, Ireland.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OA-179, the Dutch steam merchant Alwaki was torpedoed and sunk by the U-61, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Jürgen Oesten, northeast of Cape Wrath, Scotland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 51 survived and were picked up by a British freighter. The 4,533 ton Alwaki was carrying ballast.  
   
  Thursday, July 11, 1940  
  A straggler from Convoy HX-54, the Norwegian steam merchant Janna was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rollmann, south of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 25 survived reached land by lifeboat. The 2,197 ton Janna was carrying wood pulp and was headed for Falmouth, England.  
   
  Friday, July 12, 1940  
  The unescorted Greek steam merchant Ia was torpedoed and sunk by the U-99, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Kretschmer, southwest of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 27 survived. The 4,860 ton Ia was carrying wheat and pollards and was headed for Cork, Ireland.  
   
  The unescorted Estonian steam merchant Merisaar was missed by a torpedo and then stopped by shots across her bow by the U-99southwest of Ireland. After the crew abandoned ship another torpedo was fired but it also missed. The bad weather prevented the use of the deck gun, so the crew was ordered to reboard the ship and to set course directly for Bordeaux, France. The 2,136 ton Merisaar was carrying lumber and was bound for Clyde, United Kingdom. The Merisaar would be bombed and sunk by a German aircraft in the Irish Sea on July 15.  
   
  Sunday, July 14, 1940  
  The unescorted Greek steam merchant Thetis A. was torpedoed and sunk by the U-52, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Salman, west-southwest of the Scillies in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 20 survived. The 4,111 ton Thetis A. was carrying grain and was headed for Limerick, Ireland  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian steam tanker Sarita was torpedoed and then sunk by gunfire by the U-A, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Cohausz, in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 29 survived and were picked up by the British steam merchant Dunstan. The 5,824 ton Sarita was carrying ballast and was headed for Trinidad.  
   
  Monday, July 15, 1940  
  The unescorted Greek steam merchant Evdoxia was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rollmann, southwest of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 22 survived. The 2,018 ton Evdoxia was headed for Greece.  
   
  The unescorted Estonian steam merchant Merisaar was bombed and sunk by a German aircraft in the Irish Sea. The 2,136 ton Merisaar was carrying lumber and was bound for Clyde, United Kingdom.  
   
  Tuesday, July 16, 1940  
  Sailing with Convoy HX-55, the British motor tanker Scottish Minstrel was torpedoed and sunk by the U-61, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Jürgen Oesten, about 130 miles northwest of Ireland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 32 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Gardenia (K 99) in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The 6,998 ton Scottish Minstrel was carrying fuel oil and was headed for London, England.  
   
  Wednesday, July 17, 1940  
  The Greek steam merchant Naftilos was sunk by gunfire by the U-34, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rollmann, in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 27 survived. The 3,531 ton Naftilos was carrying grain and was headed for Dublin, Ireland.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy OA-184, the British steam merchant Fellside was torpedoed and sunk by the U-43, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Ambrosius, northwest of Ireland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 12 died and 21 survived. The 3,509 ton Fellside was carrying ballast and was headed for Sydney, Nova Scotia.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-55A, the British steam merchant Manipur was torpedoed and sunk by the U-57, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Erich Topp, northwest of Cape Wrath, Scotland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 14 died and 65 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMCS Skeena (D 59). The 8,652 ton Manipur was carrying general cargo, including iron, steel, lumber, copper, and zinc slabs and was headed for London, England.  
   
  The Swedish steam merchant O.A. Brodin was torpedoed and sunk by the U-57 northwest of the Orkneys. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 21 survivors were picked up by the minesweeping trawler HMS Sicyon (FY 669). The 1,960 ton O.A. Brodin was carrying lumber and pulp wood and was headed for Ridham Dock, England.  
   
  Thursday, July 18, 1940  
  The unescorted Norwegian steam merchant Gyda was torpedoed and sunk by the U-58, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Heinrich Schonder, northwest of Ireland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 11 died and 9 survivors were picked up by the Belgian steam passenger ship Ville d´Arlon. The 1,591 ton Gyda was carrying salt and was headed for Bathurst, New Brunswick.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Woodbury was torpedoed and sunk by the U-99, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Kretschmer, about 300 miles west of Lands End, England in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 35 survived and reached land by lifeboat. The 4,434 ton Woodbury was carrying canned meat, wheat, and general cargo and was headed for Manchester, England.  
   
  Friday, July 19, 1940  
  A straggler from Convoy SL-38, the British steam merchant Pearlmoor was torpedoed and sunk by the U-62, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Bernhard Michalowski, sank about 60 miles west of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died and 26 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 4,581 ton Pearlmoor was carrying iron ore and was headed for Immingham, England.  
   
  Sunday, July 21, 1940  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Ellaroy was shelled and then torpedoed and sunk by the U-30, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Fritz-Julius Lemp, about 180 miles west of Cape Finisterre off the west coast Spain in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 16 survived and were picked up by the Spanish steam trawler Felix Montenegro. The 712 ton Ellaroy was carrying pitwood and was headed for Newport Mon, Wales.  
   
  Wednesday, July 24, 1940  
  The French steamer Meknes, carrying 1277 French sailors to Marseilles, was sunk by the German motor torpedo boat S-27 off the coast of Portland, England. A total of 383 on board are killed. Read a statement by the First Lord of the Admiralty Albert V. Alexander regarding the incident.  
   
  Friday, July 26, 1940  
  Sailing with Convoy OB-188, the British motor passenger ship Accra was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rollmann, approximately 320 miles west of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 24 died and 465 survivors were picked up by the sloop HMS Enchantress (L 56) and the corvette HMS Clarkia (K 88). The 9,337 ton Accra was carrying passengers and general cargo and was headed for West African ports.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OB-188, the British motor merchant Vinemoor was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34 approximately 320 miles west of Ireland. Of the ship’s complement, all 32 survived and were picked up by the corvette HMS Clarkia (K 88). The 4,359 ton Vinemoor was carrying ballast.  
   
  Saturday, July 27, 1940  
  Sailing with Convoy OB-188, the British steam merchant Sambre was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wilhelm Rollmann, west of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 48 survived and were picked up by the destroyer HMS Winchelsea (D 46). The 5,260 ton Sambre was carrying general cargo and was headed for Philadelphia, Philadelphia.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OB-188, the motor tanker Thiara was torpedoed and sunk by the U-34 west of Ireland. Of the ship’s complement, 25 died and 36 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Winchelsea (D 46). The 10,364 ton Thiara was carrying ballast and was headed for Curaçao.  
   
  Sunday, July 28, 1940  
  The unescorted British motor merchant Auckland Star was torpedoed and sunk by the U-99, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Kretschmer, west of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 74 survived. The 13,212 ton Auckland Star was carrying general cargo, including lead, steel, hides, refrigerated goods and wheat and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Monday, July 29, 1940  
  The unescorted steam merchant Clan Menzies Star was torpedoed and sunk by the U-99, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Kretschmer, west of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 88 survived. The 7,336 ton Clan Menzies Star was carrying wheat, grain, dried fruit, zinc, and general cargo and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Wednesday, July 31, 1940  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Jamaica Progress was torpedoed and sunk by the U-99, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Kretschmer, 40 miles southwest of Barra Head, Scotland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 47 survived. The 5,475 ton Jamaica Progress was carrying fruit and was headed for Avonmouth, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OB-191, the unescorted British steam merchant Jersey City was torpedoed and sunk by the U-99 70 miles northwest of Tory Island, Ireland. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 43 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Gloucester City. The 6,322 ton Jersey City was carrying fruit and was headed for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  Other Battle of the Atlantic Events  
  Wednesday, July 31, 1940  
  British Prime Minister Churchill, in telegram sent from the U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James (Joseph P. Kennedy) to U.S. Secretary of State Hull, again asked U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt for the loan of destroyers. In the previous ten days, the Royal Navy had suffered the loss of four of its destroyers and damage to seven. "If we cannot get reinforcement," Churchill stated, "the whole fate of the war may be decided by this minor and easily remediable factor.”  
     
   
     
   
 

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