January 1942 events of the Battle of the Atlantic  
 
Overview
   
  4 Allied or Soviet warships were sunk by U-boats.  
  1 Allied warship was sunk by a mine.  
  2 Allied auxiliary warships were sunk by U-boats.  
   
  1 U-boat was sunk by an Allied warship.  
  1 U-boat was damaged by an Allied warship.  
   
  51 Allied or neutral merchant ships were sunk by U-boats totaling 275,152 tons.  
  7 Allied merchant ships were damaged by U-boats totaling 50,159 tons.  
  1 U.S. freighter was sunk in a collision with another freighter  
   
  1 German blockade runner was accidentally sunk by a U-boat  
   
  Naval Action in the Atlantic Ocean  
  Friday, January 9, 1942  
  The destroyer HMS Vimiera (L 29) hit a mine and sank off East Spile Buoy in the Thames Estuary.  
   
  Saturday, January 10, 1942  
  The Soviet submarine M-175 was torpedoed and sunk by the U-584, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Joachim Deecke, north of the Rybachiy peninsula while en route to her patrol area off the Varangerfjord. All of the ship’s complement of 21 died.  
   
  Sunday, January 11, 1942  
  Operation Paukenschlag ("roll of the kettledrums") began on the eastern seaboard of the United States. The first group of five German submarines took up station off the East Coast of the United States on this date. Over the next month, these boats (U-66, U-109, U-123, U-125 and U-130) would sink 26 Allied ships. The presence of enemy submarines off the eastern seaboard took the U.S. Navy antisubmarine forces by surprise.  
   
  Thursday, January 15, 1942  
  The German battleship SMS Tirpitz left Germany for the last time and moved to Norwegian waters.  
   
  Saturday, January 17, 1942  
  While escorting Convoy PQ-17 the destroyer HMS Matabele (G 26 was torpedoed and sunk by the U-454, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Burckhard Hackländer, off Kola Inlet in the Barents Sea in the Arctic Ocean. The HMS Matabele sank in two minutes and even in that short time, many had managed to abandon ship only to be frozen to death in the icy waters. Of the ship’s complement, 238 died and 2 survivors were picked up by the minesweeper HMS Harrier.  
   
  Monday, January 19, 1942  
  The anti-submarine trawler HMS Rosemonde was torpedoed and sunk by the U-581, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Werner Pfeifer, northeast of the Azores in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 25 died.  
   
  Wednesday, January 28, 1942  
  U.S. Navy pilot Donald F. Mason of Patrol Squadron Eight-Two (VP-82), stationed at Argentia, Newfoundland was conducting anti-submarine patrols over the Atlantic waters that had already become known as "Torpedo Alley."  The crew noticed a periscope protruding above the waves with a distinct wake trailing behind and an attack was immediately made. Mason’s commanding officer, stated in the after report: “Headway of submarine seemed to be killed at once and she was observed to sink from sight vertically.  Five minutes later, oil began to bubble to the surface and continued for ten minutes.  At this time it was necessary to leave area in order to return to base by dark.” This was considered the first kill of a U-boat by American forces and the basis for the phrase “Sighted sub, sank same” which was reported by TIME magazine on February 9, 1942. Post-war records ultimately revealed that no German submarine was sunk on January 28, 1942. On March 1, 1942, Ensign William Tepuni, a comrade of Mason's in VP-82, sank the U-656. It was subsequently to become the first confirmed sinking of a German submarine by American forces.  Though Donald F. Mason lost that distinction in the post-war correction of the records, on March 15 he attacked and sank the U-503, a victory that was not only confirmed, but that also resulted in his promotion to Ensign and award of a second Distinguished Flying Cross.  
   
  Thursday, January 29, 1942  
  The cutter USCGC Alexander Hamilton (WPG 34) was torpedoed by the U-132, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Vogelsang, off Reykjavik, Iceland in the north Atlantic Ocean. The Alexander Hamilton was towing the disabled store ship USS Yukon when it was hit. The ship was abandoned and of the ship’s complement, 32 died and 83 survivors were picked up by Icelandic fishing trawlers and were taken to Reykjavik. Two attempts by the tugs HMS Restive (W 39), HMS Frisky (W 11) and minesweeper USS Redwing (ARS 4) to salvage the ship were unsuccessful due to heavy seas.  
   
  Friday, January 30, 1942  
  The destroyer USS Ericsson (DD 440) fired three rounds into and sank the capsized cutter USCGC Alexander Hamilton (WPG 34) which had been torpedoed the day before by the U-132. The Alexander Hamilton was the first cutter sunk by enemy action during World War II.  
   
  Saturday, January 31, 1942  
  The U-105, commanded by Fregattenkapitän Heinrich Schuch, fired a salvo of four torpedoes at convoy SL-98 southwest of Ireland in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, and observed two hits and a large explosion. Schuch thought that he had hit an ammunition freighter, but in fact it was the sloop HMS Culver (Y 87), commanded by Commander Gordon-Duff. The commander, seven officers and 118 ratings were killed and 12 of the ship’s company were rescued. The Culver was built in 1929 as U.S. Coast Guard cutter USS Mendota (CGC 49) of the Chelan-class.  
   
  The destroyer HMS Belmont (H 46) of the 3rd Escort Group was torpedoed and sunk by the U-82, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Siegfried Rollmann, south of Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 138 died.  
   
  U-Boat Losses  
  Thursday, January 15, 1942  
  While tracking Convoy HG78, the German submarine U-93, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Horst Elfe, was sunk by depth charges approximately 220 miles north northeast of the Madeira Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean by a convoy escort, the destroyer HMS Hesperus (H 57). Of the ship’s complement 40 died and 6 survived. During its career the U-93 sank 8 ships for a total of 43,392 tons.  
   
  Sunday, January 25, 1942  
  The U-753, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Alfred Manhardt von Mannstein, was lightly rammed and damaged in an attack by a British escort in the North Atlantic.  
   
  Attacks on Allied and Neutral Merchant Ships  
  Friday, January 2, 1942  
  A straggler from convoy PQ-7A, the British steam merchant Waziristan was torpedoed and sunk by the U-134, commanded by Rudolf Schendel, northwest of Jan Mayen Island in the far North Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 47 died. The 5,135 ton Waziristan was carrying copper and 410 Ford Trucks was headed for Murmansk, Soviet Union. The Waziristan was the first British ship to load military supplies in the United States for the Soviet Union and made the North Atlantic passage in convoy SC-60.  
   
  Tuesday, January 6, 1942  
  The British steam merchant Baron Erskine was torpedoed and sunk by the U-701, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Degen, north of Rockall in the North Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 40 died. The 3,657 ton Baron Erskine was carrying phosphates and was headed for Garston, England.  
   
  Monday, January 12, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Cyclops was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen, about 125 miles southeast of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia. The Cyclops had 78 Chinese sailors as passengers on board to man other British ships in Halifax and the UK. 40 crew members, 46 passengers and one gunner were lost. The master, 55 crew members, six gunners and 33 passengers were picked up by HMCS Red Deer (J 255) and landed at Halifax.  The 9,076 ton Cyclops was carrying general cargo and was bound for the United Kingdom. This was the first ship sunk in Operation Paukenschlag, the U-boat offensive off the coasts of North America.  
   
  A straggler from convoy HX-168 due to bad weather, the Swedish motor merchant Yngaren was torpedoed and sunk by the U-43, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wolfgang Lüth, 600 miles west of Ireland. Of the ship’s complement, 38 died and 2 survivors were picked up by a British fishing trawler. The 5,246 ton Yngaren was carrying copra, manganese ore, trucks and eight aircraft and was headed for Hull, England.  
   
  Tuesday, January 13, 1942  
  The Norwegian steam merchant Frisco was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, off Nova Scotia, Canada in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died and 6 survivors were picked up by the Faroese sailing vessel Mjoanes. The 1,582 ton Frisco was carrying lumber and was headed for Argentia, Newfoundland.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-64,  the unescorted and unarmed Panamanian steam merchant Friar Rock was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130 approximately 110 miles southwest of Cape Race, Newfoundland, Canada. Of the ship’s complement, 31 died and 6 survivors were picked up. The 5,427 ton Friar Rock was carrying general cargo and government stores was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Wednesday, January 14, 1942  
  The unescorted Panamanian motor tanker Norness was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen, about 60 miles from Montauk Point, Long Island. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 39 survivors were spotted by a U.S. Navy, which directed the USS Ellyson, USCGC Argo, and the American fishing boat Malvina to the location of the survivors. The 9,577 ton Norness was carrying fuel oil and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-55, the British steam merchant Empire Surf was torpedoed and sunk by the U-43, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Wolfgang Lüth, south of Iceland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 47 died and 6 survivors were picked up by the HMS Alisma. The 6,641 ton Empire Surf was carrying ballast and was headed for Jacksonville, Florida.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-55, the Panamanian steam merchant Chepo was torpedoed and sunk by the U-43 south of Iceland. Of the ship’s complement, 17 died and there were 21 survivors. The 5,707 ton Chepo was carrying general cargo and ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Thursday, January 15, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam tanker Coimbra was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen, along the southern shore of Long Island, New York. Of the ship’s complement,36 died and 10 survivors were picked up by the USS Rowan (DD 405) and another American destroyer. The 6,768 ton Coimbra was carrying lubricating oil and was bound for the United Kingdom.  
   
  The Portuguese motor fishing vessel Catalina was torpedoed and sunk by the U-203, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Rolf Mützelburg, east of Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. There were no survivors. The 632 ton Catalina was carrying cod fish and was headed for Oporto, Portugal.  
   
  The British steam merchant Dayrose was torpedoed and sunk by the U-552, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erich Topp, southwest of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 38 died and 4 survivors were picked up by the destroyers USS Ericsson and USS Stack. The 4,113 ton Dayrose was carrying ballast was headed for Portland, Maine.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy ON-52, the British motor tanker Diala was torpedoed and damaged by the U-553, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl Thurmann, approximately 300 miles east-southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland, Canada in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 57 died and 8 survivors were picked up by the British merchant Telefora de Larrinaga. The 8,106 ton Diala was carrying ballast and was bound for Los Angeles, California.  
   
  Friday, January 16, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy WS-15, the British troop transport Llangibby Castle was torpedoed and damaged by the U-402, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Siegfried von Forstner, north of the Azores in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 26 died. The 11,951 ton Llangibby Castle was carrying 1,400 troops and war material and was bound for Singapore, Malaysia.  
   
  The British steam tanker Toorak was torpedoed and sunk by the U-86, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter Schug, east of Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 35 survived. The 8,627 ton Toorak was carrying ballast and was heading for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  Saturday, January 17, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy PQ-8, the British steam merchant Harmatris was torpedoed by the U-454, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Burckhard Hackländer, in the Barents Sea in the Arctic Ocean. The Harmatris was hit amidships and caught fire. The fire was extinguished and the ship reached port safely. The 5,395 ton Harmatris was carrying military stores and bound for Archangel, Soviet Union. The attack on convoy PQ-8 was the first such attack on an Arctic convoy.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy ON-52, the unescorted Norwegian motor tanker Nyholt was torpedoed and sunk by the U-87, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Joachim Berger, about 180 miles south of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 20 died and 21 survivors were picked up by the Canadian destroyer HMCS St Clair (I 65). The 8,087 ton Nyholt was carrying ballast and was bound for New York, New York.  
   
  The Norwegian steam merchant Octavian was torpedoed and sunk by the U-203, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Rolf Mützelburg, east of Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic. All of the ship’s complement of 17 died. The 1,345 ton Octavian was bound for St. Johns, Canada.  
   
  The 557 ton Soviet steam trawler RT-68 Enisej was torpedoed and sunk by the U-454, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Burckhard Hackländer, 78 miles north of Kanin Nos in the Barents Sea in the Arctic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 32 survivors reached Vargina Guba in their lifeboats.  
   
  The U.S. freighter San Jose was sunk in a collision with the freighter Santa Elisa off Atlantic City, New Jersey.  
   
  Sunday, January 18, 1942  
  A straggler from Convoy SC-63, the Greek steam merchant Dimitrios G. Thermiotis was torpedoed and sunk by the  U-86, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter Schug, off of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 33 died. The 4,271 ton Dimitrios G. Thermiotis was carrying general cargo and was bound for London, England.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American Steam merchant Frances Salman was torpedoed and sunk by the U-552, commanded by Kapitänleutnant CAPTAIN, off Newfoundland, in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 28 died. The 2,609 ton Frances Salman was carrying ballast and was bound for Corner Brook, Newfoundland.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American Steam tanker Allan Jackson was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Richard Zapp, approximately 60 miles east-northeast of Diamond Shoals, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 22 died and 13 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Roe (DD 418). The 6,635 ton Allan Jackson was carrying crude oil and was bound for New York, New York.  
   
  Monday, January 19, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed Latvian steam merchant Ciltvaira was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen, off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 29 survivors were picked up by the American steam tanker Socony-Vacuum. The 3,779 ton Ciltvaira was carrying newsprint and was bound for Savannah, Georgia.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant City of Atlanta was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123 off the coast of North Carolina. Of the ship’s complement, 43 died and 3 survivors were picked up by the American railway car carrier Seatrain Texas. The 5,269 ton City of Atlanta was carrying general cargo, mainly foodstuffs, and was bound for Savannah, Georgia.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Norvana was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123 south of Cape Hatteras. All of the ship’s complement of 29 died. The 2,677 ton Norvana was carrying ore and was bound for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  
   
  The unarmed American steam tanker Malay in an unescorted convoy was shelled, then torpedoed and damaged by the U-123 off the coast of North Carolina. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 29 survived. The 8,206 ton Malay was carrying water ballast and was bound for Port Arthur, Texas.  
   
  The unescorted Canadian steam passenger ship Lady Hawkins, carrying general cargo and 213 passengers, was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Richard Zapp, about 150 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers 251 died and 71 survivors were picked up by the by the American Steam passenger ship Coamo. The 7,988 ton Lady Hawkins was headed for Bermuda.  
   
  Tuesday, January 20, 1942  
  The Greek motor merchant Maro was shelled by 126 rounds of 88mm rounds by the U-552, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erich Topp, until the ship sank in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The vessel had been in convoy ON-53, which was scattered in gale on January 12, 1942 and was straggling thereafter. There were no survivors. The 3,838 ton Maro was headed for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  Wednesday, January 21, 1942  
  The unescorted Norwegian motor tanker Alexandra Høegh was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, south of Shelburne, Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 28 survived and were picked up by the Boston fishing trawler Grand Marshall. The 8,248 ton Alexandra Høegh was carrying crude oil and was headed for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian steam merchant Belize was torpedoed and sunk by the U-754, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Oestermann, off Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 14 died. The 2,153 ton Belize was headed for St. Johns, Newfoundland.  
   
  The Canadian motor merchant North Gaspe was torpedoed and damaged by the U-203, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Rolf Mützelburg, approximately 45 miles south of Cape Race, Newfoundland, Canada in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. The 888 ton North Gaspe was carrying war material and was bound for Halifax, Nova Scotia.  
   
  Thursday, January 22, 1942  
  A straggler from convoy ON-54 due to heavy seas, the Belgian steam merchant Gandia was torpedoed and sunk by the U-135, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich-Hermann Praetorius, about 420 miles east of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 65 died and 14 survivors were picked up by the USS Bernadou and the Portuguese motor trawler João Corte Real. The 9,626 ton Gandia was carrying ballast and was headed for St. John, New Brunswick.  
   
  A straggler from convoy ON-53, the Greek steam merchant Vassilios A. Polemis was torpedoed and sunk by the U-333, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Peter-Erich Cremer, east of Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 21 died and there were 12 survivors. The 3,429 ton Vassilios A. Polemis was carrying ballast and was headed for St. John, New Brunswick.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian motor tanker Innerøy was torpedoed and sunk by the U-553, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl Thurmann, southeast of Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 36 died and 5 survivors were picked up by the Empire Amethyst. The 8,260 ton Innerøy was carrying petrol and was headed for England.  
   
  After the convoy SC-63 was dispersed, the British steam merchant Caledonian Monarch was reported missing and its complement of 41 were lost. The 5,851 ton Caledonian Monarch was carrying carrying wheat and was headed for London, England.  
   
  After being dispersed from convoy ON-56, the British motor tanker Athelcrown was torpedoed and sunk by the U-82, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Siegfried Rollmann, southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 45 survivors were picked up by a British warship and the Swedish motor tanker Saturnus. The 11,999 ton Athelcrown was carrying ballast and was headed for Aruba, Lesser Antilles.  
   
  The unescorted Panamanian steam tanker Olympic was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Richard Zapp, off the coast of North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 35 died. The 5,335 ton Olympic was bound for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  Despite being escorted by a minesweeper, the Norwegian steam merchant William Hansen was torpedoed and sunk by the U-754, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Oestermann, off St. Johns, Newfoundland in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 14 died and 5 survivors were picked up by the Canadian corvette HMCS Algoma (K 127). The 1,344 ton William Hansen was carrying ballast and was bound for St. Johns.  
   
  Friday, January 23, 1942  
  After being dispersed from convoy SC-26, the British steam merchant Thirlby was torpedoed and sunk by the U-109, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Bleichrodt, 12 miles from Seal Island, Cape Sable, south of Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 41 survivors were picked up by the American steam merchant Belle Isle. The 4,887 ton Thirlby was carrying maize and was headed for Loch Ewe, Scotland.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-56, the Norwegian motor tanker Leiesten was torpedoed and sunk by the U-82, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Siegfried Rollmann, approximately 400 miles east-southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 29 survivors were picked up by the Greek steam merchant Agios Georgios. The 6,118 ton Leiesten was carrying ballast and was bound for Baton Rouge, Louisiana.  
   
  Saturday, January 24, 1942  
  The unescorted British motor tanker Empire Gem was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Richard Zapp, 15 miles southeast of the Diamond Shoals buoy off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 49 died and 2 survivors were picked up by a US Coast Guard vessel. The 8,139 ton Empire Gem was carrying motor fuel and machinery and was headed for England.  
   
  A straggler from convoy ON-55 due to several days of stormy weather, the Norwegian motor merchant Ringstad was torpedoed and sunk by the U-333, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Peter-Erich Cremer, about 85 miles southeast of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 30 died and 13 survivors were picked up by the USS Swanson. The 4,765 ton Ringstad was carrying china clay and was headed for St. John, New Brunswick.  
   
  Dispersed from convoy ON-53, the British steam merchant Empire Wildebeeste was torpedoed and sunk by the U-106, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hermann Rasch, east of New York in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 22 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Lang. The 5,631 ton Empire Wildebeeste was carrying ballast and was heading for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Venore was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Richard Zapp, approximately 20 miles southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Of the ship’s complement, 17 died and 24 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Tennessee and the American motor tanker Australia. The 8,017 ton Venore was carrying iron ore and was bound for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  Sunday, January 25, 1942  
  Dispersed from convoy ON-53, the British steam merchant Culebra was shelled by the U-123, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen, east-northeast of Bermuda in the western Atlantic Ocean. After a gun duel the freighter was put out of action by a direct hit. All of the ship’s complement of 14 died. The 3,044 ton Culebra was carrying general cargo and aircraft parts and was headed for Kingston, Jamaica.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian motor tanker Varanger was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, about 28 miles southeast of Atlantic City, New Jersey in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 35 survived and were picked up by two fishing vessels. The 9,305 ton Varanger was carrying fuel oil and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The 3,876 ton Greek steam merchant Mount Kitheron was torpedoed and sunk by the U-754, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Oestermann, east of Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 12 died and 24 survived.  
   
  Monday, January 26, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Traveller was torpedoed and sunk by the U-106, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hermann Rasch, east of New York in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 52 died. The 3,963 ton Traveller was carrying general cargo and explosives and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Dispersed on January 16th from convoy ON-56, the British steam tanker Refast was torpedoed and sunk by the U-582, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Werner Schulte, south of St. Johns, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 10 died and 32 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Mariposa. The 5,189 ton Refast was carrying ballast was headed for Baton Rouge, Louisiana.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant West Ivis was torpedoed and sunk by the U-125, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ulrich Folkers, off Cape Hatteras, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 45 died. The 5,666 ton West Ivis was carrying general cargo and was headed for Buenos Aires, Argentina.  
   
  Tuesday, January 27, 1942  
  Dispersed from convoy ON-53, the Greek steam merchant Icarion was torpedoed and sunk by the U-754, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Oestermann, east of Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 20 survived. The 4,013 ton Icarion was carrying ballast and was headed for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy ON-56, the Norwegian motor tanker Pan Norway was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 41 survived and were picked up by the Greek steam merchant Mount Aetna. The 9,231 ton Pan Norway was bound for Aruba.  
   
  The unarmed and unescorted American steam tanker Francis E. Powell was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, approximately eight miles northeast of the Winter Quarter Light Vessel, Virginia. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 28 survivors were picked up by the American steam tanker W.C. Fairbanks and a U.S. Coast Guard boat. The 7,096 ton Francis E. Powell was carrying furnace oil and gasoline and was bound for Providence, Rhode Island.  
   
  The 6,986 ton American steam tanker Halo was shelled and damaged by the U-130.  
   
  Friday, January 30, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam tanker Rochester was torpedoed and sunk by the U-106, commanded by Oberleutnant zur SeeHermann Rasch, about 85 miles east of the Chesapeake Lightship, Maryland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 31 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Roe. The 6,836 ton Rochester was carrying ballast and was headed for Corpus Christi, Texas.  
   
  Saturday, January 31, 1942  
  The unescorted British motor tanker San Arcadio was torpedoed and sunk by the U-107, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Harald Gelhaus, north of Bermuda in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 41 died and 9 survivors were picked up by a Mariner flying boat. The 7,419 ton San Arcadio was carrying gas and lubricating oil and was headed for Mersey, England.  
   
  Axis Merchant Shipping Losses  
  Saturday, January 31, 1942  
  The German motor merchant Spreewald, a blockade runner carrying tin, tungsten and quinine, was torpedoed and sunk by the U-333, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Peter-Erich Cremer, in the mid-Atlantic Ocean. The Spreewald was camouflaged as the Norwegian Elg and was ahead of schedule. The Spreeswald was also transporting 86 prisoners from ships that had been sunk by the German raider Kormoran. There were 72 dead and 80 survivors. Cremer was court-martialed immediately after returning from patrol but after he had explained the mistake and there was an analysis of the situation, it was decided that he was not guilty.  
   
  Other Battle of the Atlantic Events  
  Saturday, January 3, 1942  
  Critical fuel states in the "shortlegged" flush-deck destroyers in the screen of Convoy HX-167 prompted the adoption of the expedient of cargo ship USS Delta (AK 29) fueling the destroyers USS Babbitt (DD 128) and USS Schenck (DD 159). The weather again worsened and prevented the USS Leary (DD 158) from fueling after which she was sent to Casco Bay, Maine to refuel.  
   
  The light cruiser USS Omaha (CL 4) and destroyer USS Somers (DD 381) encountered two ships in succession that failed to answer challenges. The USS Omaha sent an armed boarding party each time to obtain information. The vessels proved to be the Greek freighter Marika Protopapa and Norwegian merchantman Tercero.  
   
  Thursday, January 15, 1942  
  A storm with a wind velocity of more than 80 knots and gusts of over 100 knots hit Hvalfjordur, Iceland. The heavy cruiser Wichita (CA 45) was damaged in collisions with the U.S. freighter West Nohno and British trawler HMS Ebor Wyke, and in grounding near Hrafneyri light. Storm conditions lasted until January 19 and caused heavy damage among patrol planes based there and tended by the seaplane tender US Albemarle (AV 5).  
   
  The destroyer USS Mayo (DD 422) and the British trawler HMS Douglas were damaged in a low visibility collision and heavy seas as U.S. Navy Task Unit 4.1.5, under command of Commander William K. Phillips, attempted to rendezvous with Convoy ON-55 off Iceland. The destroyer USS Simpson (DD 221) also in TU 4.1.5 suffered topside damage in the same storm that dispersed Convoy ON-55.  
   
  Wednesday, January 21, 1942  
  U.S. Navy Task Unit 4.1.2., under command of Commander Walter T. Webb, reached Londonderry, Northern Ireland. These were the first U.S. naval vessels to make port in the British Isles since the commencement of hostilities in December 1941.  
   
  Thursday, January 29, 1942  
  U.S. Navy PBYs Catalinas operating out of Natal, Brazil, were fired upon by the British freighter Debrett owing to difficulty of mutual identification.  
     
   
     
   
 

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