March 1942 events of the Battle of the Atlantic  
  Overview  
   
  1 Allied warship was sunk by a U-boat.  
  5 Allied auxiliary warships were sunk by U-boats.  
  1 Allied destroyer was damaged by its own torpedo.  
  1 Allied destroyer was used and destroyed as an explosive vessel against the gate of the massive dry dock Normandie at St. Nazaire  
   
  2 U-boats were sunk by Allied warships.  
  2 U-boats were sunk by Allied aircraft.  
  1 U-boat was sunk by a mine.  
   
  76 Allied or neutral merchant ships were sunk by U-boats totaling 438,117 tons.  
  12 Allied merchant ships were damaged by U-boats totaling 85,287 tons.  
   
  Naval Action in the Atlantic Ocean  
  Sunday, March 8, 1942  
  The British anti-submarine trawler HMS Northern Princess (4.06) was torpedoed and sunk by the U-587, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ulrich Borcherdt, off the Grand Banks, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 38 died.  
   
  The British anti-submarine trawler HMS Notts County (FY 250) was torpedoed and sunk by the U-701, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Degen, south of Iceland in the northern Atlantic Ocean.  
   
  Wednesday, March 11, 1942  
  The anti-submarine trawler HMS Stella Capella (FY 107), commanded by Lt W.L. Sadgrove, was torpedoed and sunk by the U-701, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Degen, south of Iceland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 33 died.  
   
  Sunday, March 15, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American lighthouse tender USCGC Acacia (WAGL 200) was sunk by gunfire by the U-161, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Albrecht Achilles, south of Haiti in the Caribbean. Of the ship’s complement, all 35 survived and were picked up by the destroyer USS Overton (DD-239). This was the only U.S. Lighthouse Service vessel lost during the war.  
   
  Thursday, March 26, 1942  
  The 3,209 ton American Q-ship USS Atik (AK 101), commanded by Lt. Commander Harry L. Hicks, was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen, about 300 miles east of Norfolk, Virginia in the western Atlantic Ocean. Q-ships were heavily armed merchant ships with concealed weaponry, designed to lure submarines into making surface attacks. All of the ship’s complement of 141 died.  
   
  Sunday, March 29, 1942  
  The light cruiser HMS Trinidad (46), commanded by Captain Leslie Swain Saunders, was hit by one of her own torpedoes during a battle with the German destroyers Z 24, Z 25, and Z 26, sinking the latter. She received temporary repairs in Murmansk, Russia and sailed for home on 13 May 1942.  
   
  The destroyer HMS Campbeltown (I 42) was used and destroyed as an explosive vessel against the gate of the massive dry dock Normandie at St. Nazaire, France to deny large German surface ships the use of it for repair. The commander of the destroyer, Lt. Commander Stephen H. Beattie, who was taken prisoner of war, was awarded the Victoria Cross for this raid.  
   
  Monday, March 30, 1942  
  The minesweeping trawler HMS Sulla (FY 1874) was torpedoed and sunk by the U-456, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Max-Martin Teichert, in the Barents Sea near Bear Island in the Arctic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement died.  
   
  U-Boat Losses  
  Sunday, March 1, 1942  
  The U-656, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Kröning, was sunk in the North Atlantic Ocean south of Cape Race by depth charges from a U.S. Hudson aircraft from Squadron VP 82. All of the ship’s complement of 45 died.. During its career the U-656 sank or damaged no ships.  
   
  Sunday, March 15, 1942  
  The U-503, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Gericke, was sunk in the North Atlantic southeast of Newfoundland by depth charges from a U.S. Hudson aircraft from Squadron VP-82. All of the ship’s complement of 51 died. During its career the U-503 sank or damaged no ships. The Hudson aircraft was piloted by Donald F. Mason, credited with being the first American to sink a U-Boat on January 28, 1942 and for the saying “Sighted sub. Sank same.” Donald F. Mason would lose the distinction of being the first to sink a U-Boat in the post-war correction of the records.  
   
  Tuesday, March 24, 1942  
  The U-655, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Adolf Dumrese, was sunk in the Barents Sea after being rammed by the minesweeper HMS Sharpshooter. All of the ship’s complement of 45 died. During its career the U-655 sank or damaged no ships.  
   
  Friday, March 27, 1942  
  The U-587, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ulrich Borcherdt, was sunk in the North Atlantic Ocean by depth charges from the destroyers HMS Volunteer and HMS Leamington and the escort destroyers HMS Grove and HMS Aldenham. All of the ship’s complement of 42 died. During its career the U-587 sank 1 auxiliary warship and 4 merchant ships for a total of 22,734 tons.  
   
  Monday, March 30, 1942  
  The U-585, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst-Bernward Lohse, was sunk in the Barents Sea in the Arctic Ocean north of Murmansk, Soviet Union by a German mine which had drifted from the "Bantos-A" barrage. All of the ship’s complement of 44 died. During its career the U-585 sank or damaged no ships.  
   
  Attacks on Allied and Neutral Merchant Ships  
  Sunday, March 1, 1942  
  Separated from Convoy ONS-67, the Norwegian motor tanker Finnanger was torpedoed and sunk by the U-158, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erwin Rostin, about 300 miles south of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 39 died. The 9,551 ton Finnanger was carrying ballast and was headed for Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy ON-66, the British steam merchant Carperby was torpedoed and sunk by the U-588, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Victor Vogel, 420 miles south of Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 40 died. The 4,890 ton Carperby was carrying coal and coke and was headed for Buenos Aires, Argentina.  
   
  The 577 ton Soviet steam trawler RT-19 Komintern was torpedoed and sunk by the U-436, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Seibicke, northeast of Cape Teriberskij in the Arctic Ocean.  
   
  Monday, March 2, 1942  
  The unescorted Norwegian steam merchant Gunny was torpedoed and sunk by the U-126, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer, location. Of the ship’s complement, 24 died and 12 survivors were picked up by the Swedish motor merchant Temnaren. The 2,362 ton Gunny was carrying manganese ore and mahogany and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Tuesday, March 3, 1942  
  The unescorted American steam merchant Mary was torpedoed and sunk by the U-129, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Asmus Nicolai Clausen, about 165 miles off the north coast of Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 33 survivors were picked up by the American steam merchant Alcoa Scout. The 5,104 ton Mary was carrying ballast and was headed for Suez, Egypt.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Helenus was torpedoed and sunk by the U-68, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Friedrich Merten, about 200 miles south of Freetown, Sierra Leone. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 76 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Beaconsfield. The 7,366 ton Helenus was carrying general cargo, including rubber and copper and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Thursday, March 5, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Mariana was torpedoed and sunk by the U-126, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer, off Turks Island in the Caribbean. All of the ship’s complement of 36 died. The 3,110 ton Mariana was carrying sugar and was headed for Boston, Massachussetts.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian motor tanker O.A. Knudsen was torpedoed and sunk by the U-128, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ulrich Heyse, east of Abaco Island, Bahamas in the Caribbean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 39 survived. The 11,007 ton O.A. Knudsen was carrying petrol and fuel oil and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy HX-178, the American steam merchant Collamer was torpedoed and sunk by the U-404, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto von Bülow, off the coast of Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 31 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Empire Woodcock. The 5,112 ton Collamer was carrying general cargo, including war supplies and was headed for Murmansk, Soviet Union.  
   
  The British steam merchant Benmohr was torpedoed and sunk by the U-505, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Axel-Olaf Loewe, about 210 miles south-southwest of Freetown, Sierra Leone in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 56 survived and were picked up by a British Sunderland flying boat. The 5,920 ton Benmohr was carrying general cargo, including silver bullion, pig iron, and rubber and was headed for Oban, Scotland.  
   
  Friday, March 6, 1942  
  The Norwegian motor tanker Sydhav was torpedoed and sunk by the U-505, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Axel-Olaf Loewe, off of Sierra Leone in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 12 died and 24 survivors were picked up by the anti-submarine trawler HMS Kelt (FY 112). The 7,587 ton Sydhav was carrying oil and was headed for Freetown, Sierra Leone.  
   
  The Greenlandian steam merchant Hans Egede was torpedoed and sunk by the U-587, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ulrich Borcherdt, in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 23 died. The 900 ton Hans Egede was headed for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  
   
  The British steam trawler Rononia was torpedoed and sunk by the U-701, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Degen, in the fishing grounds off Iceland in the northern Atlantic Ocean.  
   
  Saturday, March 7, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Barbara was torpedoed and sunk by the U-126, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer, approximately nine miles north-northeast of Tortuga Island, Dominican Republic in the Caribbean. Of the ship’s complement, 26 died and 59 survivors were picked up by a PBY Catalina flying boat. The 4,637 ton Barbara was carrying general cargo and was headed for San Juan, Puerto Rico.  
   
  The steam merchant Cardonia was torpedoed and sunk by the U-126 approximately five miles west-northwest of the St. Nicholas Mole, Haiti in the Caribbean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 37 survivors were picked up by the USS Mulberry (AN 27) or made landfall in a lifeboat. The 5,104 ton Cardonia was carrying general cargo and was headed for Guayabal, Cuba.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Steel Age was torpedoed and sunk by the U-129, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Asmus Nicolai Clausen, 130 miles northeast of Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 33 died and 1 survivor was picked up by the U-129 and spent the war in a POW camp in Bremen, Germany. The 6,188 ton Steel Age was carrying manganese ore and was headed for New Orleans, Louisiana.  
   
  The Brazilian steam merchant Arabutan was torpedoed and sunk by the U-155, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening, about 81 miles off Cape Hatteras in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 54 survivors were picked up by the Coast Guard cutter USS Calypso (WPC 104). The 7,874 ton Arabutan was carrying coal and coke and was headed for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
   
  The unescorted South African whale factory ship Uniwaleco was torpedoed and sunk by the U-161, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Albrecht Achilles, about 45 miles west of St. Vincent Passage in the Caribbean. Of the ship’s complement, 18 died and 33 survived. The 9,755 ton Uniwaleco was carrying fuel oil and was headed for Freetown, Sierra Leone.  
   
  The 349 ton Faroese steam trawler Nyggjaberg was torpedoed and sunk by the U-701, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Degen, in the fishing grounds off Iceland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 21 died.  
   
  The U.S. freighter Independence Hall, straggling from Convoy SC-73, was riding out a North Atlantic Winter gale when a mountainous wave crashed amidships and broke her in two and sank off Sable Island, Nova Scotia in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Ten of the 38-man merchant crew died. There are no casualties among the 9-man Armed Guard. The Independence Hall was carrying thirteen tanks and other war cargo and was bound for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sunday, March 8, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Hengist was torpedoed and sunk by the U-569, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Peter Hinsch, northwest of Cape Wrath, Scotland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 29 survivors were picked up by the French trawler Groenland. The 984 ton Hengist was carrying fish and was headed for Grimsby, England.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Baluchistan was torpedoed and sunk by the U-68, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl-Friedrich Merten, 30 miles southwest of Grand Cess, Liberia in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 68 survived. The 6,992 ton Baluchistan was carrying general cargo, including dates and was headed for England.  
   
  The unescorted Panamanian motor tanker Esso Bolivar was torpedoed and damaged by the U-126, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer, approximately 30 miles southeast of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 8 died and 42 survivors were picked up by the minesweeper USS Endurance. The 10,389 ton Esso Bolivar was carrying fresh water, commissary stores, and deck cargo of acetylene cylinders and was bound for Aruba.  
   
  Monday, March 9, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed Panamanian motor tanker Hanseat was torpedoed and sunk by the U-126, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer, 10 miles north-northeast of Cape Maysi, Cuba in the Caribbean. Of the ship’s complement, all 39 survived. The 8,241 ton Hanseat was carrying ballast and was headed for Caripito, Venezuela.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ONS-68, the Greek steam merchant Lily was torpedoed and sunk by the U-587, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ulrich Borcherdt, in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 29 survived. The 5,719 ton Lily was carrying ballast and was headed for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  The unescorted Brazilian steam merchant Cayrú was torpedoed and sunk by the U-94, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Otto Ites, about 130 miles from New York in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 53 died and 36 survivors were picked up by the Norwegian motor merchant Titania and the American coastal minesweeper USS AMc-202. The 5,152 ton Cayrú was carrying general cargo, including leather, oil, cotton, and cacao and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian motor merchant Tyr was torpedoed and sunk by the U-96, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock, about 100 miles from Halifax in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died and 18 survivors were picked up by a Canadian patrol vessel and by the minesweeper HMCS Georgian (J 144). The 4,265 ton Tyr was carrying ballast and was headed for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  Tuesday, March 10, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam tanker Gulftrade was torpedoed and sunk by the U-588, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Victor Vogel, 3 miles off Barnegat Light, New Jersey in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 18 died and 16 survivors were picked up by the patrol vessel USCGC Antietam (WPC 128) and the tender USS Larch (AN 21). The 6,776 ton Gulftrade was carrying bunker C oil and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Wednesday, March 11, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Caribsea was torpedoed and sunk by the U-158, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erwin Rostin, 14 miles east of the Cape Lookout Lighthouse, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 21 died and 7 survivors were picked up by the American steam merchant Norlindo. The 2,609 ton Caribsea was carrying manganese ore and was headed for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed Norwegian steam merchant Hvoslef was torpedoed and sunk by the U-94, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Otto Ites, two miles east of Fenwick Island off Delaware Bay in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 14 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 1,630 ton Hvoslef was carrying sugar and was headed for Boston, Massachusetts.  
   
  Thursday, March 12, 1942  
  The unarmed and unescorted American steam merchant Olga was torpedoed and sunk by the U-126, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer, approximately 20 miles north of Nuevitas Light, Cuba in the Caribbean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 32 survivors were picked up by a U.S. naval craft. The 2,496 ton Olga was carrying ballast and was headed for Baracoa, Cuba.  
   
  The unarmed and unescorted American steam merchant Texan was torpedoed and sunk by the U-126 approximately 40 miles east of Nuevitas, Cuba. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 38 survivors were picked up by the Cuban fishing boat Yoyo. The 7,005 ton Texan was carrying general cargo and was headed for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy ON-70, the Norwegian steam merchant Ingerto was torpedoed and sunk by the U-578, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst-August Rehwinkel, in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 32 died. The 3,089 ton Ingerto was carrying ballast and was headed for Mobile, Alabama.  
   
  The Canadian steam passenger ship Lady Nelson was torpedoed and damaged by the U-161, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Albrecht Achilles, into the harbor of Port Castries, St. Lucia. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 25 died and 210 survived. The 7,970 ton Lady Nelson was carrying passengers, general cargo, and foodstuffs and was bound for Georgetown Cayman Islands.  
   
  The British steam merchant Umtata was torpedoed and damaged by the U-161 into the harbor of Port Castries. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 37 died and 103  survived. The 8,141 ton Umtata was carrying passengers, chrome ore, asbestos, and meat and was bound for New York, New York.  
   
  Friday, March 13, 1942  
  The unescorted American steam tanker John D. Gill was torpedoed and sunk by the U-158, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erwin Rostin, about 25 miles east of Cape Fear, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 23 died and 26 survivors were picked up by the US Coast Guard vessel USCGC CG-4405 and the American tanker SS Robert H Colley. The 11,641 ton John D. Gill was carrying crude oil and was headed for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  
   
  The unarmed and unescorted American sailing ship Albert F. Paul was torpedoed and sunk by the U-332, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johannes Liebe, in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 8 died. The 735 ton Albert F. Paul was carrying salt and was headed for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  The Yugoslavian steam merchant Trepca was torpedoed and sunk by the U-332 in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 33 survivors were picked up by a Swedish merchant. The 5,042 ton Trepca was carrying bauxite and was headed for Portland, Maine.  
   
  The neutral and unescorted Chilean steam merchant Tolten was torpedoed and sunk by the U-404, commanded by Kapitänleutnant U-404, about 32 miles off Barnegat, New Jersey in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 26 died and 1 survivors were picked up by the tender USS Larch (AN 21). The 1,858 ton Tolten was carrying ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unarmed and unescorted American Steam merchant Colabee was torpedoed and damaged by the U-126, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer, off Cape Guajaba, Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 23 died and 14 survived. The 5,518 ton Colabee was carrying sugar and was bound for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  Saturday, March 14, 1942  
  The unescorted British motor tanker British Resource was torpedoed and sunk by the U-124, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johann Mohr, north of Bermuda in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 45 died and 4 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Clarkia (K 88). The 7,209 ton British Resource was carrying benzine and white spirit and was headed for England.  
   
  The unescorted Canadian steam merchant Sarniadoc was torpedoed and sunk by the U-161, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Albrecht Achilles, about 200 miles west of Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 19 died. The 1,940 ton Sarniadoc was carrying bauxite and was headed for St. Thomas, Virgin Islands.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Lemuel Burrows was torpedoed and sunk by the U-404, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto von Bülow, about five miles south-southwest of the Brigantine Gas Buoy off New Jersey in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 20 died and 14 survivors were picked up by the American steam merchant Sewalls Point and the American steam merchant James Elwood Jones. The 7,610 ton Lemuel Burrows was carrying coal and was headed for Boston, Massachussetts.  
   
  The unescorted Panamanian motor tanker Penelope was torpedoed and sunk by the U-67, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Müller-Stöckheim, in the Caribbean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 47 survived. The 8,436 ton Penelope was carrying crude oil and was headed for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  Sunday, March 15, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam tanker Ario was torpedoed and sunk by the U-158, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erwin Rostin, off the coast of North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 8 died and 26 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Du Pont (DD 152). The 6,952 ton Ario was carrying ballast and was headed for Corpus Christi, Texas.  
   
  The unescorted American steam tanker Olean was torpedoed and damaged by the U-158 approximately 15 miles south of Cape Lookout, North Carolina. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 36 survivors were picked up by motor lifeboats. The 7,118 ton Olean was carrying water ballast and was bound for Beaumont, Texas.  
   
  Monday, March 16, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American motor tanker Australia was torpedoed and sunk by the U-332, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johannes Liebe, off the Diamond Shoals Light Buoy, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 36 survivors were picked up by the armed yacht USS Ruby (PY 21). The 11,628 ton Australia was carrying fuel oil and was headed for New Haven, Connecticut.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Stangarth was torpedoed and sunk by the U-504, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Hans-Georg Friedrich Poske, northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. All of the ship’s complement of 46 died. The 5,966 ton Stangarth was carrying goverment stores and general cargo and was headed for India.  
   
  The unescorted Baron British steam merchant Baron Newlands was torpedoed and sunk by the U-68, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl-Friedrich Merten, six miles south of Cape Palmas, Liberia in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 18 died and 20 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 3,386 ton Baron Newlands was carrying manganese ore and was headed for Freetown, Sierra Leone.  
   
  Tuesday, March 17, 1942  
  The unescorted Greek steam merchant Mount Lycabettus was torpedoed and sunk by the U-373, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Paul-Karl Loeser, in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 30 died. The 4,292 ton Mount Lycabettus was carrying wheat and was headed for Leixos, Portugal.  
   
  The unescorted British motor tanker San Demetrio was torpedoed and sunk by the U-404, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto von Bülow, northwest of Cape Charles, Virginia in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 19 died and 32 survivors were picked up by the American merchant Beta. The 8,073 ton San Demetrio was carrying alcohol and motor spirit and was headed for England.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Allende was torpedoed and sunk by the U-68, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl-Friedrich Merten, approximately 18 miles south of Cape Palmas, Liberia in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 33 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 5,081 ton Allende was carrying general cargo and was headed for England.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Ile de Batz was torpedoed and sunk by the U-68, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl-Friedrich Merten, approximately 28 miles south of Cape Palmas. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 39 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMCS Weyburn (K 173). The 5,755 ton Ile de Batz was carrying general cargo and rice and was headed for England.  
   
  The unescorted British motor merchant Scottish Prince was torpedoed and sunk by the U-68, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl-Friedrich Merten, approximately 180 miles west of Takoradi, Ghana in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 38 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMCS Weyburn (K 173). The 4,917 ton Scottish Prince was carrying palm kernels, castor seed, and pig iron and was headed for England.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian motor tanker Ranja was torpedoed and sunk by the U-71, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter Flachsenberg, about 450 miles east-southeast of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 34 died. The 6,355 ton Ranja was carrying petroleum and was headed for England.  
   
  The unescorted Honduran steam merchant Ceiba was torpedoed and sunk by the U-124, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johann Mohr, in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 44 died and 6 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Hambleton (DD 455). The 1,698 ton Ceiba was carrying bananas and was heading for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam tanker Acme was torpedoed and damaged by the U-124, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johann Mohr, approximately one mile west of the Diamond Shoals Light Buoy, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 11 died and 20 survivors were picked up by the U.S. Coast Guard cutter USS Dione. The 6,878 ton Acme was carrying water ballast and was bound for Corpus Christi, Texas.  
   
  Wednesday, March 18, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam tanker E.M. Clark was torpedoed and sunk by the U-124, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johann Mohr, about 22 miles southwest of the Diamond Shoals Lighted Buoy off the coast of North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 40 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Dickerson (DD-157). The 9,647 ton E.M. Clark was carrying heating oil and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted Greek steam merchant Kassandra Louloudis was torpedoed and sunk by the U-124 off the Diamond Shoals. Of the ship’s complement, all 35 survived and were picked up by the US Coast Guard cutter USS Dione. The 5,106 ton Kassandra Louloudis was carrying war material and was headed for Cristobal, Dominican Republic.  
   
  Thursday, March 19, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam tanker Papoose was torpedoed and sunk by the U-124, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johann Mohr, approximately 15 miles southwest of Cape Lookout, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 32 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Stringham (DD 83). The 5,939 ton Papoose was carrying water ballast and was headed for Corpus Christi, Texas.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American Steam tanker W.E. Hutton was torpedoed and sunk by the U-124 approximately 20 miles southeast of Cape Lookout. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died and 23 survivors were picked up by the British motor merchant Port Halifax. The 7,076 ton W.E. Hutton was carrying #2 heating oil and was headed for Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant Liberator was torpedoed and sunk by the U-332, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johannes Liebe, three miles west of the Diamond Shoals Lighted Buoy off the coast of North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 30 survivors were picked up by the fleet tug USS Umpqua (AT 25). The 7,720 ton Liberator was carrying sulphur and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Friday, March 20, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Oakmar was torpedoed and sunk by the U-71, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter Flachsenberg, about 300 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 30 survivors were picked up by the Greek steam merchant Stavros. The 5,766 ton Oakmar was carrying manganese ore, burlap, and rubber and was headed for Boston, Massachusetts.  
   
  Saturday, March 21, 1942  
  The American motor tanker Atlantic Sun was torpedoed and damaged by the U-124, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johann Mohr, off the Beaufort Sea Buoy, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and armed guards, all 45 survived. The 11,355 ton Atlantic Sun was carrying crude oil and was bound for Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania.  
   
  The American steam tanker Esso Nashville was torpedoed and damaged by the U-124 approximately 16 miles northeast of the Frying Pan Lightship Buoy, North Carolina. Of the ship’s complement, all 37 survived. The 7,934 ton Esso Nashville was carrying fuel oil and was bound for New Haven, Connecticut.  
   
  Sunday, March 22, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam tanker Muskogee was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen, about 450 miles southeast of Bermuda in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 34 died. The 7,034 ton Muskogee was carrying heavy crude oil and was headed for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  The unescorted British motor merchant Thursobank was torpedoed and sunk by the U-373, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Paul-Karl Loeser, east of Chesapeake Bay in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 30 died and 26 survivors were picked up by the Norwegian motor tanker Havsten. The 5,575 ton Thursobank was carrying general cargo and was headed for Alexandria, Egypt.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy ON-75, the British motor tanker Athelviscount was torpedoed and damaged by the U-202, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Heinz Linder, approximately 600 miles east-southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 52 survived. The 8,882 ton Athelviscount was carrying ballast and was bound for Port Everglades, Florida.  
   
  Monday, March 23, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam tanker Naeco was torpedoed and sunk by the U-124, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johann Mohr, about 65 miles southeast of Cape Lookout, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 24 died and 14 survivors were picked up by the US Coast Guard cutter USS Dione (WPC 107) and the tug USS Umpqua (ATO 25). The 5,373 ton Naeco was carrying kerosene and heating oil and was headed for Seawarren, New Jersey.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy HX-181, the British motor tanker British Prudence was torpedoed and sunk by the U-754, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Oestermann, northeast of Halifax, Canada. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 47 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Witherington (D 76). The 8,620 ton British Prudence was carrying fuel oil and was headed for Clyde, England.  
   
  Tuesday, March 24, 1942  
  The unescorted British motor tanker Empire Steel was torpedoed and sunk by the U-123, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Hardegen, in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 39 died and 8 survivors were picked up by the American tug Edmund J. Moran. The 8,138 ton Empire Steel was carrying aviation fuel and kerosene and was headed for England.  
   
  Wednesday, March 25, 1942  
  The unescorted British motor tanker Narragansett was torpedoed and sunk by the U-105, commanded by Heinrich Schuch, about 400 miles east of Hampton Roads, Virginia in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 49 died. The 10,389 ton Narragansett was carrying clean petroleum product and was headed for England.  
   
  The unescorted Dutch motor tanker Ocana was torpedoed and sunk by the U-552, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erich Topp, in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 53 died and 4 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Mayo (DD 422). The 6,256 ton Ocana was carrying fuel oil.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-77, the British motor tanker Imperial Transport was torpedoed and damaged by the U-94, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Otto Ites, about 530 miles east of St. John’s, Newfoundland in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 51 survived. The 8,022 ton Imperial Transport was carrying ballast and was bound for Curaçao.  
   
  Thursday, March 26, 1942  
  The escorted British fleet oiler Slavol was torpedoed and sunk by the U-205, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Franz-Georg Reschke, off Sidi Barrani, Egypt in the Mediterranean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 36 died and 20 survivors were picked up by the destroyer RHS Vasilissa Olga (D 15). The 2,623 ton Slavol was carrying fuel oil and was headed for Tobruk, Libya.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam tanker Dixie Arrow was torpedoed and sunk by the U-71, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter Flachsenberg, about 12 miles off the Diamond Shoals Light Buoy, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 11 died and 22 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Tarbell (DD 142). The 8,046 ton Dixie Arrow was carrying crude oil and was headed for Paulsboro, New Jersey.  
   
  Friday, March 27, 1942  
  The Norwegian motor tanker Svenør was torpedoed and sunk by the U-105, commanded by Heinrich Schuch, about 300 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 8 died and 29 survivors were picked up by the Portuguese steam merchant Cunene. The 7,616 ton Svenør was carrying furnace oil and was headed for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  Sunday, March 29, 1942  
  The unescorted American motor passenger ship City of New York was torpedoed and sunk by the U-160, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Georg Lassen, about 40 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 24 died and 109 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Roper (DD 147), the fleet tug USS Acushnet (AT 63), and the U.S. Coast Guard vessel USCGC CG-455. The 8,272 ton City of New York was carrying chrome ore, wood, wool, hides, and asbestos and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Hertford was torpedoed and sunk by the U-571, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Helmut Möhlmann, about 200 miles south of Halifax, Canada in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 58 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Glenstrae and the British steam merchant Fort Townsend. The 10,923 ton Hertford was carrying general cargo, including refrigerated meat and was headed for England.  
   
  Monday, March 30, 1942  
  A straggler from Convoy PQ-13, the British steam merchant Induna was torpedoed and sunk by the U-376, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich-Karl Marks, northeast of the Kola Inlet near Murmansk, Soviet Union in the Arctic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 38 died and 28 survivors were picked up by a Russian minesweeper. The 5,086 ton Induna was carrying war material and gasoline and was headed for Murmansk, Soviet Union.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy PQ-13, the American steam merchant Effingham was torpedoed and sunk by the U-435, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Siegfried Strelow, in the Barents Sea in the Arctic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 12 died and 31 survivors were picked up by the minesweeper HMS Harrier (N 71). The 6,421 ton Effingham was carrying general cargo, including explosives and was headed for Murmansk, Soviet Union.  
   
  The British motor merchant Muncaster Castle was torpedoed and sunk by the U-68, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl-Friedrich Merten, south-southwest of Monrovia, Liberia in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 24 died and 329 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Aubretia (K 96) and the Greek steam merchant Ann Stathatos. The 5,853 ton Muncaster Castle was carrying passengers, government stores, and trucks and was headed for Colombo, Ceylon.  
   
  Tuesday, March 31, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam tanker San Gerardo was torpedoed and sunk by the U-71, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter Flachsenberg, southeast of New York in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 51 died and 6 survivors were picked up by the British motor tanker Regent Panther. The 2,915 ton San Gerardo was carrying fuel oil and was headed for Halifax, Canada.  
   
  The unarmed tug Menominee  towing three barges, was attacked by gunfire by the U-754, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Oestermann, approximately 10 miles east-southeast of Metopkin Inlet, Virginia and damaged the American barge Ontario. Of the barges’ complement, all 3 survived. The 490 ton Ontario was carrying lumber and was bound for Stamford, Connecticut.  
   
  Other Battle of the Atlantic Events  
  Monday, March 2, 1942  
  Antisubmarine Warfare Unit, Atlantic Fleet was established at Boston, Massachusetts.  
   
  Monday, March 9, 1942  
  Naval Air Transport Service Squadron was established at Norfolk, Virginia, for operations in Atlantic area.  
   
  Thursday, March 12, 1942  
  The first British armed trawlers sent to augment U.S. Navy patrol force efforts off the German submarine-plagued eastern American coastal waters, HMS Wastwater (FY 239) and HMS Le Tigre (FY 243), began patrol operations in Third Naval District waters. The ships were assigned duties off Atlantic City and Barnegat, New Jersey.  
   
  Saturday, March 14, 1942  
  Amphibious Force Atlantic Fleet, under command of Rear Admiral Roland M. Brainard, was established.  
   
  Thursday, March 26, 1942  
  U.S. Navy Task Force 39, under command of Rear Admiral John W. Wilcox, including the battleship USS Washington (BB 56), aircraft carrier USS Wasp (CV-7), heavy cruisers USS Wichita (CA-45) and USS Tuscaloosa (CA-37), and eight destroyers, set sail from Portland, Maine for Scapa Flow, Scotland to reinforce the British Home Fleet.  
   
  Commander Eastern Sea Frontier was given operational control of certain USAAF units for antisubmarine patrol duty in the Atlantic Ocean. Unity of command over U.S. Navy and USAAF units operating over water to protect shipping and conduct antisubmarine warfare was thus vested in the Navy.  
   
  Saturday, March 28, 1942  
  The Royal Navy and British Commandos conducted Operation Chariot where the obsolete destroyer HMS Campbeltown (I 42), reconfigured to resemble a German torpedo boat and with her bow packed with delayed-action explosives, rammed into the heavily defended Normandie dry dock at St Nazaire in German-occupied France. The HMS Campbeltown was successfully detonated and the resulting damage put the drydock out of commission for the remainder of the war. St Nazaire was targeted because the loss of its dry dock would force any large German warship in need of repairs, such as the SMS Tirpitz, to return to home waters rather than having a safe haven available on the Atlantic coast.  
   
  Tuesday, March 31, 1942  
  Commander of All Forces Aruba and Curacao, Netherlands West Indies, was established, under command of Rear Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf.  
     
   
     
   
 

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