July 1942 events of the Battle of the Atlantic  
 
  Overview  
  1 Allied warship was damaged by a U-boat.  
   
  7 U-boats were sunk by Allied warships.  
  4 U-boats were sunk by Allied aircraft.  
  1 U-boat was sunk by a combination of Allied aircraft and a warship.  
   
  89 Allied or neutral merchant ships were sunk by U-boats or mines totaling 455,168 tons.  
  9 Allied merchant ships were damaged by U-boats or mines totaling 72,744 tons.  
  7 merchant ships sailing in Convoy PQ-17 were sunk by German aircraft.  
  4 merchant ships sailing in Convoy QP-13 accidentally sank in a British minefield.  
   
  Naval Action in the Atlantic Ocean  
  Saturday, July 4, 1942  
  After Convoy PQ17, bound for Archangel, came under attack and reports came in that the German surface fleet, including the battleship Tirpitz, have left their anchorages in Norway. Admiral Dudley Pound, First Sea Lord of the British Navy, then gave the controversial order for the fleet to scatter and the escorts to withdraw.  
   
  Saturday, July 25, 1942  
  The minesweeping trawler HMS Laertes (T 137) was torpedoed and sunk by the U-201, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adalbert Schnee, off Freetown, Sierra Leone, in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 19 died.  
   
  Monday, July 27, 1942  
  Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Günther Kühlmann, commander of the U-166, radioed the German Subcommand that he had finished his mine laying operation at the approaches to the mouth of the Mississippi River.  
   
  Friday, July 31, 1942  
  The submarine U-751, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Bigalk, laid mines off Charleston, South Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean.  
   
  U-Boat Losses  
  Friday, July 3, 1942  
  The U-215, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Fritz Hoeckner, was sunk by depth charges from the British anti-submarine trawler HMS Le Tiger (FY 243 ) in the north Atlantic Ocean east of Boston, Massachusetts. All of the ship’s complement of 48 died. During its career the U-215 sank 1 merchant ship for a total of 7,191 tons.  
   
  Monday, July 6, 1942  
  The U-502, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Jürgen von Rosenstiel, was sunk by depth charges from a British Wellington aircraft from Squadron 172/H in the Bay of Biscay west of La Rochelle, France. All of the ship’s complement of 52 died. During its career the U-502 sank 14 merchant ships for a total of 78,843 tons and damaged 2 merchant ships for a total of 23,797 tons.  
   
  Tuesday, July 7, 1942  
  The U-701, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Degen, was sunk by depth charges from a Hudson aircraft from U.S. Army Bomber Squadron 396 near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Of the ship’s complement, 39 died and 7 survived. During its career the U-701 sank 4 auxiliary warships and 5 merchant ships for a total of 25,390 tons. The U-701 also damaged 1 warship and 4 merchant ships for a total of 37,093 tons.  
   
  Saturday, July 11, 1942  
  The U-136, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Zimmermann, was sunk by depth charges from the Free French destroyer Léopard, the frigate HMS Spey (K 246) and the sloop HMS Pelican (L 86) in the eastern Atlantic Ocean west of Madeira, Portugal. All of the ship’s complement of 45 died. During its career the U-136 sank 2 warships and 5 merchant ships for a total of 23,649 tons and damaged 1 merchant ship for a total of 8,955 tons.  
   
  Monday, July 13, 1942  
  The U-153, commanded by Fregattenkapitän Wilfried Reichmann, was sunk by depth charges from the US destroyer USS Lansdowne (DD 486) near Colon, Panama. All of the ship’s complement of 52 died. During its career the U-153 sank 3 merchant ships sunk for a total of 6,186  tons.  
   
  Wednesday, July 15, 1942  
  The U-576, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Dieter Heinicke, was sunk by depth charges from 2 US Kingfisher aircraft and gunfire from the US motor vessel Unicoi in the north Atlantic near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. All of the ship’s complement of 45 died. During its career the U-576 sank 4 merchant ships sunk for a total of 15,450 tons and damaged 2 merchant ships for a total of 19,457 tons.  
   
  Friday, July 17, 1942  
  The U-751, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Bigalk, was sunk by depth charges from a British Whitley and Lancaster aircraft northwest of Cape Ortegal, Spain in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 48 died. During its career the U-751 sank 1 warship, 5 merchant ships for a total of 21,412 tons and damaged 1 merchant ship for a total of 8,096 tons.  
   
  Thursday, July 23, 1942  
  The U-90, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Jürgen Oldörp, was sunk by depth charges from the Canadian destroyer HMCS St. Croix (I 81) in the Northern Atlantic. All of the ship’s complement of 44 died. During its career the U-90 sank or damaged no ships.  
   
  Thursday, July 30, 1942  
  The U-166, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Günther Kuhlmann, was sunk by depth charges from the U.S. Navy escort vessel PC-566 in the Gulf of Mexico. All of the ship’s complement of 52 died. During its career the U-166 sank 4 merchant ships for a total of 7,593 tons sunk.  
   
  Friday, July 31, 1942  
  The U-213, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Amelung von Varendorff, was sunk by depth charges from the British sloops HMS Erne (U 03), HMS Rochester (L 50), and HMS Sandwich (L 12) in the north Atlantic Ocean east of the Azores. All of the ship’s complement of 50 died.  
   
  The U-588, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Victor Vogel, was sunk by depth charges from the Canadian corvette HMCS Wetaskiwin (K 175) and the Canadian destroyer HMCS Skeena (D 59) in the north Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 46 died. During its career the U-588 sank 7 merchant ships for a total of 31,492 tons and damaged 1 merchant ship for a total of 7,460.  
   
  The U-754, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Oestermann, was sunk by a Canadian Hudson aircraft in the north Atlantic Ocean north of Boston. All of the ship’s complement of 43 died. During its career the U-754 sank 13 merchant ships for a total of 55,659 tons and damaged 1 merchant ship for a total of 490 tons.  
   
  Attacks on Allied and Neutral Merchant Ships  
  Wednesday, July 1, 1942  
  Convoy PQ-17 set sail from Seidisfjord, Iceland, bound for northern Soviet Union. Among the ships in the close covering force that had departed Reykjavik, Iceland, the previous day were the heavy cruisers USS Wichita (CA 45) and USS Tuscaloosa (CA 37) and destroyers USS Wainwright (DD 419) and USS Rowan (DD 405). The Allied Arctic convoy effort suffered a significant defeat when Convoy PQ-17 lost 24 of its 35 merchant ships during a series of heavy enemy daylight attacks which lasted from July 5 to July 10.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant Warrior was torpedoed and sunk by the U-126, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer, off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 49 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Herbert (DD 160). The 7,551 ton Warrior was carrying general war supplies and fuel and was headed for Bandar Shapur, Iran.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian steam merchant Cadmus was torpedoed and sunk by the U-129, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Ludwig Witt, in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 20 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 1,855 ton Cadmus was carrying bananas and was headed for Galveston, Texas.  
   
  The American steam passenger ship City of Birmingham was torpedoed and sunk by the U-202, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Heinz Linder, approximately 250 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 9 died and 372 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Stansbury (DMS 8). The 5,861 ton City of Birmingham was carrying passengers and general cargo and was headed for Bermuda.  
   
  Thursday, July 2, 1942  
  The unescorted Norwegian motor merchant Gundersen was torpedoed and then sunk by gunfire by the U-129, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Ludwig Witt, in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 25 survivors were picked up by the Norwegian steam merchant Dea. The 1,841 ton Gundersen was carrying banana stems and was headed for Galveston, Texas.  
   
  Friday, July 3, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy BX-27, the American steam merchant Alexander Macomb was torpedoed and sunk by the U-215, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Fritz Hoeckner, approximately 175 miles east of Cape Cod, Massachusetts in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 10 died and 56 survivors were picked up by the minesweeping trawler HMS Le Tiger (FY 243) and the corvette HMCS Regina (K 234). The 7,191 ton Alexander Macomb was carrying military equipment, tanks, planes and explosives and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  The 3,305 ton Panamanian steam merchant San Pablo was torpedoed and damaged beyond repair by the U-161, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Albrecht Achilles, as it was discharging cargo at the fully illuminated pier in Puerto Limón, Costa Rica. One crew member died on watch below and 23 stevedores (residents of Puerto Limon) working in the holds were killed. All but three crew members of the vessel were ashore at the time of the attack.  
   
  The unescorted American steam tanker Gulfbelle was torpedoed and damaged by the U-126, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Bauer, 21 miles north of Tobago in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 47 survived. The 7,104 ton Gulfbelle was carrying water ballast and was bound for Aruba.  
   
  Saturday, July 4, 1942  
  The Archangel, Soviet Union bound convoy PQ-17 was attacked by German torpedo-carrying HE-111 medium bombers attacked Convoy PQ-17 200 miles northeast of Bear Island, Soviet Union. A solitary HE-111 damaged the American freighter William Hooper.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy PQ-17, the damaged American steam merchant William Hooper was torpedoed and sunk by the U-334, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hilmar Siemon, the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 55 survivors were picked up by the British rescue ship Rathlin and the Zamalek. The 7,177 ton William Hooper was carrying military stores, including trucks, ammunition and tanks as deck cargo and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy PQ-17, the American steam merchant Christopher Newport was torpedoed and sunk by the U-457, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl Brandenburg, the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 47 survivors were picked up by the British rescue ship Zamalek. The 7,191 ton Christopher Newport was carrying war material and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Admiral Dudley Pound, First Sea Lord of the British Navy, gave the controversial order for the fleet to scatter and the escorts to withdraw. The order to scatter was given because of fears of a German surface ship sortie, including the battleship Tirpitz, from Norwegian waters and caused the detachment of major escort vessels to deal with this threat that did not materialize.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Norlandia was torpedoed and sunk by the U-575, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Heydemann, approximately 25 miles northeast of Cape Samana, San Domingo in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 21 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 2,689 ton Norlandia was carrying ballast and was headed for Nuevitas, Cuba.  
   
  The unescorted Soviet motor tanker Tuapse was torpedoed and sunk by the U-129, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Ludwig Witt, northwest of Havana in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 8 died and 36 survived. The 6,320 ton Tuapse was carrying ballast and was headed for New Orleans, Louisiana.  
   
  Sunday, July 5, 1942  
  German air and submarine attacks on the dispersed Archangel, Soviet Union-bound Convoy PQ-17 continued.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American freighter Peter Kerr suffers three direct bomb hits from German aircraft. The burning ship was abandoned by all hands. The 35 merchant seamen and the 11-man Armed Guard contingent who survived would be rescued by a Soviet motor torpedo boat on July 12.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American freighter Fairfield City was bombed by German aircraft. Eight men died when one bomber scores a direct hit on the merchantman's bridge. Irreparably damaged, the Fairfield City was abandoned by the 28 merchant seamen and the 6-man Armed Guard. Some of the survivors reached Novaya Zemlya, Soviet Union by lifeboat on July 9 while the rest were rescued by a Soviet whaler on July 12.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American freighter Washington was attacked by JU-88 light bombers 175 miles east-northeast of Bear Island, Soviet Union. After attacking two other vessels, the Germans directed their efforts at the Washington, and near-misses caused further damage to hull plates weakened the day before. The 36-man crew and 9-man Armed Guard abandoned ship in lifeboats, and decide to take their chances in the boats instead of being taken on board freighter Olopana. The survivors were rescued by a Soviet whaler on July 12.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American freighter Pan Craft was bombed by German planes and abandoned. One crewman died during the abandonment, a second died of wounds later. The corvette HMS Lotus (K 130) rescued the 34 merchant seamen and the 11-man Armed Guard, but failed in her attempt to scuttle the merchantman, which ultimately exploded and sank.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the British steam merchant Earlston Smiles was torpedoed and sunk by the U-334, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hilmar Siemon, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 52 survived. The 7,195 ton Earlston Smiles was carrying military stores and 195 vehicles, 33 aircraft and a steam launch as deck cargo and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American steam merchant Honomu was torpedoed and sunk by the U-456, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Max-Martin Teichert, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died and 28 survivors were picked up by a British minesweeper and an escort vessel. The 6,977 ton Honomu was carrying food, steel, ammunition and tanks and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy PQ-17, the British steam merchant Empire Byron was torpedoed and sunk by the U-703, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinz Bielfeld, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 63 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Dianella (K 07). The 6,645 ton Empire Byron was carrying military stores, 6 vehicles, 30 tanks and 15 aircraft and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the British steam merchant River Afton was torpedoed and sunk by the U-703, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinz Bielfeld, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 26 died and 38 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Lotus (K 93). The 5,479 ton River Afton was carrying military stores, 36 tanks, 12 vehicles and 7 aircraft and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American steam merchant Carlton was torpedoed and sunk by the U-88, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heino Bohmann, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 42 survived. The 5,127 ton Carlton was carrying tanks, TNT, ammunition, fuel, and food and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American steam merchant Daniel Morgan was torpedoed and sunk by the U-88, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heino Bohmann, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 51 survived were picked up by the Soviet steam tanker Donbass. The 7,177 ton Daniel Morgan was carrying steel, food, explosives, and tanks and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Convoy QP-13, groping its way through poor visibility conditions, blundered into a British minefield in the Denmark Strait.  
   
  The American freighter Massmar hit two mines and sank losing 17 of the ship's 36-man crew, and 5 of her 9-man Armed Guard as did 26 of the its 45 passengers (survivors of the freighter Alamar). The Free French corvette Roselys (K 57) rescued the survivors.  
   
  The American freighter Hybert hit a mine and was abandoned. After its 39-man crew, 11-man Armed Guard, and 26 passengers from the sunken freighter Syros abandoned ship, the Hybert drifted into a second mine and sank. The armed trawler HMS Lady Madeleine (FY 283) and FFL Roselys rescued the survivors.  
   
  American freighter John Randolph hit two mines, broke in two. 5 of the 38-man crew died, but none of the 12 passengers or the 12-man Armed Guard were lost. Other ships in Convoy QP-13 rescued the survivors. The ship's bow section was recovered and salvaged but the stern section sank.  
   
  American freighter Heffron hit two mines and was abandoned. One crewman dies in the abandonment. The FFL Roselys rescued the 36 crewmen, two Navy signalmen and 23 passengers. The Heffron sank the next morning.  
   
  The American freighter Richard Henry Lee was damaged but suffered no casualties.  
   
  Monday, July 6, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy QS-15, the Greek steam merchant Anastassios Pateras was torpedoed and sunk by the U-132, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Vogelsang, in the St. Lawrence Seaway. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 26 survived. The 3,382 ton Anastassios Pateras was carrying grain and trucks and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy QS-15, the British steam merchant Dinaric was torpedoed and sunk by the U-132 in the St. Lawrence Seaway. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 24 survivors were picked up by the minesweeper HMCS Drummondville (J 253). The 2,555 ton Dinaric was carrying timber and steel and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy QS-15, the Belgian steam merchant Hainaut was torpedoed and sunk by the U-132 in the St. Lawrence Seaway. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 44 survived. The 4,312 ton Hainaut was carrying general cargo and trucks as deck cargo and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  The unescorted British steam passenger ship Avila Star was torpedoed and sunk by the U-201, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adalbert Schnee, 90 miles east of San Miguel, Azores in the central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 84 died and 112 survivors were picked up by the Portuguese destroyer Lima (D 333) and the Portuguese sloop Pedro Nunes (A 528). The 14,443 ton Avila Star was carrying passengers and frozen meat and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  German air and submarine attacks on the dispersed Archangel, Soviet Union-bound Convoy PQ-17 continued.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American steam merchant John Witherspoon was torpedoed and sunk by the U-255, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhart Reche, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 49 survived. The 7,191 ton John Witherspoon was carrying ammunition and tanks and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American freighter Pan Atlantic, hastily painted white to camouflage her against the ice floes through which she was sailing, was bombed and sank with the loss of 18 (of 37) merchant seamen and 7 (of 11) Armed Guard sailors. The submarines U-88 and U-703 salvaged provisions from the freighter's flotsam. One of the enemy submarines conducted a brief interrogation of the survivors before departing. The corvette HMS Lotus (K 130) rescued the survivors.  
   
  The Norwegian motor merchant Bayard was sunk by the U-67, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Müller-Stöckheim, in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 11 died and 21 survivors were picked up by a seaplane. The 2,160 ton Bayard was carrying general cargo and was headed for Cristobal, Dominican Republic.  
   
  The 65 ton Panamanian motor fishing vessel Lalita was sunk by gunfire by the U-154, commanded by Walther Kölle, in the Gulf of Mexico.  
   
  Tuesday, July 7, 1942  
  German air and submarine attacks on the dispersed Archangel, Soviet Union-bound Convoy PQ-17 continued.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American steam merchant Olopana was torpedoed and sunk by the U-255, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhart Reche, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 34 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 6,069 ton Olopana was carrying explosives, gasoline and trucks as deck cargo and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American steam merchant Alcoa Ranger was sunk by gunfire by the U-255, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhart Reche, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 40 survived and reached land by lifeboat. The 5,116 ton Alcoa Ranger was carrying steel, armor plates, flour and 19 tanks as deck cargo and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the British steam merchant Hartlebury was torpedoed and sunk by the U-355, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günter La Baume, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 38 died and 20 survived. The 5,082 ton Hartlebury was carrying 6 vehicles, 36 tanks, 7 aircraft and military stores and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the abandoned British fleet oiler Aldersdale was sunk by gunfire by the U-457, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl Brandenburg, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 54 survived and were picked up by a minesweeper. The 8,402 ton Aldersdale was carrying aviation fuel and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  The British steam merchant Umtata was torpedoed and sunk by the U-571, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Helmut Möhlmann, northeast of Key West in the Florida Strait. The Umtata was under tow by the American tug Edmund J. Moran after being damaged in the harbor of Port Castries, St. Lucia on March 10, 1942. Of the ship’s complement, all 91 survived and were picked up by the Edmund J. Moran.  
   
  The American steam tanker Paul H. Harwood was torpedoed and damaged by the U-67, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Müller-Stöckheim, 40 miles southwest of Southwest Pass, Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, all 56 survived. The 6,610 ton Paul H. Harwood was carrying water ballast and was bound for Port Arthur, Texas.  
   
  Wednesday, July 8, 1942  
  German air and submarine attacks on the dispersed Archangel, Soviet Union-bound Convoy PQ-17 continued.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the Panamanian freighter El Capitan was sunk German bombers in the Arctic Ocean. The El Capitan had just rescued 19 survivors from the American freighter John Witherspoon (sunk by German submarine U-255 on July 6). The armed trawler HMS Lord Austin (FY 220) rescued the survivors of both ships.  
   
  The unescorted American motor tanker J.A. Moffett, Jr. was torpedoed and sunk by the U-571, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Helmut Möhlmann, 3 miles southwest of Tennessee Reef, Florida Keys in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 42 survivors were picked up by the U.S. Coast Guard auxiliary boats Mary Jean and Southbound and the patrol vessel USCGC Nike (WPC 112). The 9,788 ton J.A. Moffett, Jr. was carrying water ballast and was headed for Port Arthur, Texas.  
   
  Thursday, July 9, 1942  
  German air and submarine attacks on the dispersed Archangel, Soviet Union-bound Convoy PQ-17 continued.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the American freighter Hoosier was straddled by bombs and damaged irreparably. The 42-man crew and 11-man Armed Guard abandoned ship and were rescued by the corvette HMS Poppy (K 213). The Free French-manned corvette HMS La Malouine (K 46) took the crippled merchantman under tow, but discontinued the operation when the escort vessel sighted German submarine U-255 trailing at a distance. The HMS La Malouine's attempt to scuttle the freighter failed and the U-376 later finished off the Hoosier with a torpedo, sinking the following morning.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant Santa Rita was torpedoed and then sunk by explosive changes by the U-172, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Carl Emmermann, approximately 700 miles northeast of Puerto Rico in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 59 survived. The 8,379 ton Santa Rita was carrying chrome ore, asbestos, sausage casings, other general cargo and two German tanks as deck cargo and was headed for Charleston, South Carolina.  
   
  The unescorted British motor merchant Cape Verde was torpedoed and sunk by the U-203, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Rolf Mützelburg, east of Grenada in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 40 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 6,914 ton Cape Verde was carrying general cargo, including cotton, silicon, and chrome ore and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The Honduran steam merchant Nicholas Cuneo was sunk by gunfire by the U-571, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Helmut Möhlmann, south of Florida in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 19 survived. The 1,051 ton Nicholas Cuneo was carrying general cargo and was headed for Havana, Cuba.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Empire Explorer was torpedoed and then sunk by gunfire by the U-575, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Heydemann, west of Tobago in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 75 survivors were picked up by the British HMS MTB-337. The 5,345 ton Empire Explorer was carrying sugar, pitch and mail and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  The unescorted Yugoslavian steam merchant Triglav was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Markworth, approximately 800 miles east-southeast of the Bermudas in the central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 24 died and 19 survived. The 6,363 ton Triglav was carrying manganese ore and zinc concentrates and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Friday, July 10, 1942  
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the abandoned Panamanian steam merchant El Capitan was torpedoed and sunk by the U-251, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Timm, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. The El Capitan had been attacked by several German Junkers Ju 88 aircraft of II. and III./KG 30 the day before. Of the ship’s complement, all 67 survived and were picked up by the armed trawler HMS Lord Austin (FY 220). The 5,255 ton El Capitan was carrying machinery, food, leather, ammunition and a deck cargo of tanks and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the abandoned American steam merchant Hoosier was torpedoed and sunk by the U-376, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich-Karl Marks, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. The Hoosier had been attacked by several German Junkers Ju 88 aircraft of II. and III./KG 30 the day before. Of the ship’s complement, all 53 survived and were picked up by the corvette HMS Poppy (K 213). The 5,060 ton Hoosier was carrying machinery, explosives and tanks as deck cargo and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  The American steam tanker Benjamin Brewster was torpedoed and sunk by the U-67, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Müller-Stöckheim, off the coast of Louisiana 60 miles west of Southwest Pass in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 25 died and 15 survived. The 5,950 ton Benjamin Brewster was carrying aviation gas and lubricating oil and was headed for Tampa, Florida.  
   
  Saturday, July 11, 1942  
  The Dominican sailing ship Carmen was sunk by gunfire by the U-166, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Günther Kuhlmann, north of the Dominican Republic in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 7 survived. The 84 ton Carmen was carrying maize, mahogany, and cedar and was headed for Ponce, Puerto Rico.  
   
  The unescorted Panamanian steam tanker Stanvac Palembang was torpedoed and sunk by the U-203, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Rolf Mützelburg, approximately 15 miles off Tobago Island in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 45 survivors were picked up by the submarine chaser USS PC-8. The 10,013 ton Stanvac Palembang was carrying water ballast and was headed for Port of Spain, Trinidad.  
   
  Sunday, July 12, 1942  
  Dispersed from Convoy OS-33, the British steam merchant Shaftesbury was torpedoed and sunk by the U-116, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Werner von Schmidt, approximately 430 miles from Las Palmas, Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 45 survived and were picked up by the British motor merchant Tuscan Star. The 4,284 ton Shaftesbury was carrying coal and was headed for Buenos Aires, Argentina.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant Tachirá was torpedoed and sunk by the U-129, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Ludwig Witt, approximately 375 miles west of Jamaica in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 33 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 2,32 ton Tachirá was carrying cacao, dividivi, and coffee and was headed for New Orleans, Louisiana.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy OS-33, the British steam merchant Cortona was torpedoed and sunk by the U-201, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adalbert Schnee, south of the Azores in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 31 died and 23 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Pathfinder (G 10). The 7,093 ton Cortona was carrying general cargo and was headed for Buenos Aires, Argentina.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy OS-33, the British steam merchant Siris was torpedoed and sunk by the U-201 south of the Azores. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 52 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Jonquil (K 68). The 5,242 ton Siris was carrying general cargo and was headed for Buenos Aires, Argentina.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy OS-33, the British steam merchant Port Hunter was torpedoed and sunk by the U-582, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Werner Schulte, west of the Madeira Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 88 died and 3 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Rother (K 224). The 8,826 ton Port Hunter was carrying ammunition and depth charges and was headed for Auckland, New Zealand.  
   
  Monday, July 13, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Oneida was torpedoed and sunk by the U-166, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Günther Kuhlmann, two miles north of Cape Maysi, Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 23 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 2,309 ton Oneida was carrying ballast and was headed for Punta Gorda, Cuba.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy OS-33, the British steam merchant Sithonia was torpedoed and sunk by the U-201, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adalbert Schnee, west of the Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 46 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 6,723 ton Sithonia was carrying coal and was headed for Montevideo, Uruguay.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy PQ-17, the abandoned Dutch steam merchant Paulus Potter was torpedoed and sunk by the U-255, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhart Reche, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. The Paulus Potter had been attacked by German Ju 88 aircraft of the III./KG 30 on July 5, 1942. Of the ship’s complement, all 76 survived. The 7,168 ton Paulus Potter was carrying general goods, ammunition, 34 tanks, 15 aircraft and 103 trucks and was headed for Archangel, Soviet Union.  
   
  The unescorted American steam tanker R.W. Gallagher was torpedoed and sunk by the U-67, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Müller-Stöckheim, 80 miles from Southwest Pass, Mississippi in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 10 died and 42 survivors were picked up by the US Coast Guard cutter USS Boutwell (WPC 130). The 7,989 ton R.W. Gallagher was carrying Bunker C fuel oil and was headed for Port Everglades, Florida.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant Andrew Jackson was torpedoed and sunk by the U-84, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Uphoff, approximately 20 miles off Cardenas Light, Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 46 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 5,990 ton Andrew Jackson was carrying ballast and was headed for Key West, Florida.  
   
  Wednesday, July 15, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam tanker British Yeoman was torpedoed and sunk by the U-201, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adalbert Schnee, southwest of the Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 43 died and 10 survivors were picked up by the Spanish steam tanker Castillo Almenara. The 6,990 ton British Yeoman was carrying Admiralty fuel oil and was headed for Gibraltar.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy OS-33, the British steam merchant Empire Attendant was torpedoed and sunk by the U-582, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Werner Schulte, south of the Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 59 died. The 7,524 ton Empire Attendant was carrying general cargo and vehicles and was headed for Karachi, India.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy KS-520, the Nicaraguan motor merchant Bluefields was torpedoed and sunk by the U-576, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Dieter Heinicke, off the coast of North Carolina in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 24 survived. The 2,063 ton Bluefields was carrying two cars, radio, empty burlap bags, and drums of carbide and oil and was headed for Havana, Cuba.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy KS-520, the American steam merchant Chilore was torpedoed and damaged by the U-576 near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Of the ship’s complement, all 56 survived. The 8,310 ton Chilore was carrying dry cargo and water ballast and was bound for Trinidad.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy KS-520, the Panamanian motor tanker J.A. Mowinckel was torpedoed and damaged by the U-576, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Dieter Heinicke,near Cape Hatteras. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 57 survived. The 8,310 ton J.A. Mowinckel was carrying fresh water and some dry cargo and was bound for Aruba.  
   
  The unescorted American motor tanker Pennsylvania Sun was torpedoed and damaged by the U-571, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Helmut Möhlmann, approximately 125 miles west of Key West in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 57 survived. The 11,394 ton Pennsylvania Sun was carrying U.S. Navy fuel oil and was bound for Belfast, Ireland.  
   
  Thursday, July 16, 1942  
  The unescorted Panamanian steam tanker Beaconlight was torpedoed and sunk by the U-160, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Georg Lassen, approximately ten miles northwest Galera Point, Trinidad in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 40 survivors were picked up by a small steam passenger ship. The 6,926 ton Beaconlight was carrying ballast and was headed for Trinidad.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy AS-4, the American steam merchant Fairport was torpedoed and sunk by the U-161, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Albrecht Achilles, approximately 500 miles north of St. Thomas, Virgin Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, all 123 survived and were picked up by the destroyer USS Kearny (DD 432). The 6,165 ton Fairport was carrying U.S. Army personnel, war material, and a deck cargo of tanks and was headed for Suez, Egypt.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American motor fishing vessel Gertrude was sunk by gunfire by the U-166, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Günther Kuhlmann, approximately 30 miles northeast of Havana, Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, all 3 survived. The 16 ton Gertrude was carrying onions and was headed for Havana, Cuba.  
   
  Saturday, July 18, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed Panamanian steam merchant Carmona was torpedoed and sunk by the U-160, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Georg Lassen, southeast of Trinidad in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 31 survivors were picked up by the patrol boat USS YPC-68. The 5,496 ton Carmona was carrying linseed and was headed for Edgewater, Florida.  
   
  The British schooner ship Comrade was sunk by gunfire by the U-575, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Heydemann, in the Caribbean Sea. The 69 ton Comrade was carrying general cargo and was headed for British Guiana.  
   
  The British schooner ship Glacier was sunk by gunfire by the U-575 in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, all 10 survived. The 75 ton Comrade was carrying general cargo and was headed for British Guiana.  
   
  The unescorted British steam tanker San Gaspar was torpedoed and damaged by the U-575 approximately 30 miles off Manzanilla, Trinidad in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 12 died and 40 survived. The 12,910 ton San Gaspar was carrying fuel oil and aviation spirit and was bound for Freetown, Sierra Leone.  
   
  Sunday, July 19, 1942  
  The unescorted Norwegian steam merchant Port Antonio was torpedoed and sunk by the U-129, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Ludwig Witt, northwest of Cuba in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 31 died and 11 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 1,266 ton Port Antonio was carrying coffee and was headed for Tampa, Florida.  
   
  The unescorted Greek steam merchant Leonidas M. was torpedoed and sunk by the U-332, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Johannes Liebe, in the central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 31 survived. The 4,573 ton Leonidas M. was carrying iron ore and was headed for Sydney, Nova Scotia.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OS-34, the British steam merchant Empire Hawksbill was torpedoed and sunk by the U-564, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Suhren, approximately 200 miles north of the Azores in the central Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 47 died. The 5,724 ton Empire Hawksbill was carrying government stores and was headed for Capetown, South Africa.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OS-34, the British motor merchant Lavington Court was torpedoed and sunk by the U-564 approximately 200 miles north of the Azores. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 41 survivors were picked up by the sloop HMS Wellington. The 5,372 ton Lavington Court was carrying government stores, including 2 naval launches as deck cargo and was headed for the Middle East.  
   
  The unescorted Honduran steam merchant Baja California was torpedoed and sunk by the U-84, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Uphoff, 40 miles northeast from Rebecca Shoals, Florida in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 34 survivors were picked up by the Cuban fishing schooner San Ignacio. The 1,648 ton Baja California was carrying war material and was headed for Puerto Barrios, Guatemala.  
   
  Tuesday, July 21, 1942  
  The unescorted British motor tanker Donovania was torpedoed and sunk by the U-160, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Georg Lassen, off Grand Matelot Point, Trinidad in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 45 survivors were picked up by British motor torpedo boats and the destroyer USS Livermore (DD 429). The 8,149 ton Donovania was carrying ballast and was headed for Trinidad.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-4J, the American steam merchant William Cullen Bryant was torpedoed and damaged by the U-84, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Uphoff, approximately 40 miles southwest of Key West in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, all 54 survived. The 7,176 ton William Cullen Bryant was carrying raw sugar and was bound for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  
   
  Wednesday, July 22, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Honolulan was torpedoed and sunk by the U-582, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Werner Schulte, approximately 400 miles south of the Cape Verde Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 39 survived and were picked up by the British motor merchant Winchester Castle. The 7,493 ton Honolulan was carrying manganese ore and jute and was headed for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  The 53 ton Colombian sailing ship Urious was sunk by gunfire by the U-505, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Axel-Olaf Loewe, near Cayo Bolívar in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died.  
   
  Thursday, July 23, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed American steam merchant Onondaga was torpedoed and sunk by the U-129, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Ludwig Witt, approximately five miles north of Cayo Guillermo, Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 20 died and 14 survivors were picked up by the Cuban fishing boat Laventina. The 2,309 ton Onondaga was carrying magnesium ore and was headed for Havana, Cuba.  
   
The unescorted British steam merchant Garmula was torpedoed and sunk by the U-752, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Ernst Schroeter, approximately 200 miles southwest of Freetown, Sierra Leone, in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 21 died and 67 survivors were picked up by the minesweeping trawler HMS Pict (FY 132). The 5,254 ton Garmula was carrying grain and was headed for the United Kingdom.
   
  Saturday, July 25, 1942  
  The unescorted Norwegian motor tanker Tankexpress was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, south of the Cape Verde Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 39 survived and were picked up by the destroyer HMS Lightning (G 55). The 10,095 ton Tankexpress was carrying ballast and was headed for Aruba.  
   
  The unescorted Dutch steam merchant Telamon was torpedoed and sunk by the U-160, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Georg Lassen, off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 23 died and 14 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Canadoc. The 2,078 ton Telamon was carrying bauxite and timber and was headed for Port of Spain, Trinidad.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-113, the British steam merchant Broompark was torpedoed and damaged by the U-552, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erich Topp, east of Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. The Broompark was taken in tow by the tug USS Cherokee (AT 66), but sank on July 28 approximately 50 miles southwest of St. Johns, Newfoundland. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 45 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMCS Brandon (K 149). The 5,136 ton Broompark was carrying ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-113, the British motor tanker British Merit was torpedoed and damaged by the U-552 east of Newfoundland. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 54 survived. The 8,093 ton British Merit was carrying ballast and was bound for New York, New York.  
   
  The 54 ton Canadian motor fishing vessel Lucille M. was sunk by gunfire by the U-89, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Dietrich Lohmann, in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 11survived and reached land by lifeboat.  
   
  Sunday, July 26, 1942  
  The unescorted Mexican steam merchant Oaxaca was torpedoed and sunk by the U-171, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Pfeffer, off the coast of Texas near Corpus Christi in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 39 survived. The 4,351 ton Oaxaca was carrying general cargo, including newsprint, caustic soda and telephone poles and was headed for Tampico, Mexico.  
   
  The unescorted Brazilian Steam merchant Tamandaré was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Markworth, off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 48 survivors were picked up by the patrol craft USS PC-492. The 4,942 ton Tamandaré was carrying general cargo, including coffee and raw materials and was headed for La Guaira, Venezuela.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-113, the British motor merchant Empire Rainbow was torpedoed and sunk by the U-704, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Wilhelm Kessler, approximately 300 miles east of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 47 survived and were picked up by the destroyer HMS Burnham (H 82) and the corvette HMCS Dauphin (K 157). The 6,942 ton Empire Rainbow was carrying ballast and was headed for Halifax, Nova Scotia.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-113, the British motor merchant Empire Rainbow was torpedoed and damaged by the U-704 approximately 300 miles east of Cape Race. Of the ship’s complement, all 47 survived. The 6,942 ton Empire Rainbow was carrying ballast and was bound for Halifax, Nova Scotia.  
   
  Monday, July 27, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Elmwood was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, in the central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 51 survived. The 7,167 ton Elmwood was carrying general cargo and military equipment including tanks and was headed for Kuwait.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant Stella Lykes was torpedoed and sunk by the U-582, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Werner Schulte, in the central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 52 survived. The 6,801 ton Stella Lykes was carrying ballast and was headed for Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy FN-20, the Norwegian steam merchant Leikanger was torpedoed and sunk by the U-752, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Ernst Schroeter. Of the ship’s complement, 18 died and 13 survivors were picked up by the American steam merchant Harry Luckenbach. The 4,003 ton Leikanger was carrying chrome ore and was headed for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  Tuesday, July 28, 1942  
  The unescorted Brazilian steam merchant Barbacena was torpedoed and sunk by the U-155, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening, off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 56 survivors were picked up by the Argentinean steam tanker Tacito, the British steam merchant Elmdale, and the British steam tanker San Fabian. The 4,772 ton Barbacena was carrying general cargo, including coffee, castor seed, dried beans and caroa fibre and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted Brazilian steam merchant tanker Piave was sunk by gunfire by the U-155 approximately 100 miles off Barbados. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 34 survivors were picked up by the Argentinean steam tanker Tacito, the British steam merchant Elmdale, and the British steam tanker San Fabian. The 2,347 ton Piave was carrying ballast and was headed for Caripito, Venezuela.  
   
  The unescorted British motor merchant Weirbank was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Markworth, approximately 90 miles southeast of Barbados in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 66 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 5,150 ton Weirbank was carrying ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed  260 ton American motor fishing vessel Ebb was sunk by gunfire by the U-754, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Oestermann, approximately 45 miles southeast of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 12 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Witherington (D 76).  
   
  Wednesday, July 29, 1942  
  The Norwegian steam merchant Bill was torpedoed and sunk by the U-155, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening, approximately 170 miles southeast of Barbados in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 23 survived. The 2,445 ton Bill was carrying general cargo, including cocoa and manganese ore and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted Canadian steam merchant Prescodoc was torpedoed and sunk by the U-160, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Georg Lassen, northwest of Georgetown, British Guiana in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 15 died and 6 survivors were picked up by the Yugoslavian steam merchant Predsednik Kopajtic. The 1,938 ton Prescodoc was carrying ballast and was headed for Trinidad.  
   
  Thursday, July 30, 1942  
  The unescorted British motor merchant Danmark was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, in the central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 46 survived and were picked up by the Norwegian motor tanker Mosli. The 8,391 ton Danmark was carrying ballast and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-113, the British motor merchant Pacific Pioneer was torpedoed and sunk by the U-132, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Vogelsang, southwest of Sable Island, Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 71 survived and were picked up by the corvette HMCS Calgary (K 231). The 6,734 ton Pacific Pioneer was carrying ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant Cranford was torpedoed and sunk by the U-155, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening, approximately 250 miles east-southeast of Barbados in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 11 died and 36 survivors were picked up by the Spanish steam tanker Castillo Alemenara. The 6,096 ton Cranford was carrying chrome ore and cotton and was headed for the United States.  
   
  The American steam passenger ship Robert E. Lee was torpedoed and sunk by the U-166, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Günther Kuhlmann, approximately 25 miles southeast of the entrance to the Mississippi River in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 25 died and 379 survivors were picked up by the USS PC-566, USS SC-519, and the tug Underwriter. The 5,184 ton Robert E. Lee was carrying passengers and general cargo and was headed for New Orleans, Louisiana.  
   
  Other Battle of the Atlantic Events  
  Wednesday, July 1, 1942  
  Six Coastal Command Catalinas relocated to Archangel, northwest Soviet Union, to provide air support for Arctic convoys.  
   
  Friday, July 17, 1942  
  Soviet Marshal Josef Stalin was informed of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s decision to suspend the convoys to Murmansk following the Convoy PQ-17 disaster until arrangements could be devised which gave a “reasonable chance of at least a fair proportion of the convoys reaching you.”  
   
  Sunday, July 19, 1942  
  German Grand Admiral Karl Donitz ordered the last U-boats to withdraw from their United States Atlantic seaboard positions in response to improved American convoy operations.  
     
   
     
   
 

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