August 1942 events of the Battle of the Atlantic  
  Overview  
  2 Allied auxiliary warships were damaged by U-boats.  
  1 Allied auxiliary warship was damaged by a mine.  
  1 Alliedwarship was sunk in an accident.  
   
  3 U-boats were sunk by Allied warships.  
  2 U-boats were sunk by Allied aircraft.  
  1 U-boat was sunk by a combination of Allied aircraft and a warship.  
  1 U-boat went missing by an unknown cause.  
  1 U-boat was sunk in an accident.  
   
  110 Allied or neutral merchant ships were sunk by U-boats or mines totaling 516,175 tons.  
  7 Allied merchant ships were damaged by U-boats or mines totaling 55,927 tons.  
   
  Naval Action in the Atlantic Ocean  
  Sunday, August 9, 1942  
  The submarine U-98, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Wilhelm Schulze, completed laying mines off mouth of St. Johns River, east of Jacksonville, Florida.  
   
  Monday, August 10, 1942  
  The coastal minesweeper USS Bold (AMc 67) was damaged by the detonation of a mine laid the day before by the U-98 off Jacksonville, Florida in the western Atlantic Ocean.  
   
  Tuesday, August 18, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy SL-118, the armed Merchant Cruiser HMS Cheshire (F 18) was torpedoed and damaged by the U-214, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Reeder, northeast of the Azores in the eastern Atlantic Ocean.  
   
  Friday, August 28, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy U-165, the American fleet oiler USS Laramie (AO 16) was torpedoed and damaged by the U-165, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Eberhard Hoffmann, at the north end of Belle Isle Strait in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 103 survived. The 7,252 ton USS Laramie was carrying aviation gasoline, oil and general cargo, including depth charges and was bound for Greenland.  
   
  U-Boat Losses  
  Monday, August 3, 1942  
  The U-335, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Hermann Pelkner, was sunk by torpedoes from the British submarine HMS Saracen (P 247) in the North Sea northeast of the Faeroes. Of the ship’s complement, 43 died and 1 survived. During its career the U-335 sank or damaged no ships.  
   
  Thursday, August 6, 1942  
  The U-210, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Rudolf Lemcke, was sunk by ramming, depth charges and gunfire from the Canadian destroyer HMCS Assiniboine (I 18) in the North Atlantic south of Cape Farewell, Greenland. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 37 survived. During its career the U-210 sank or damaged no ships.  
   
  The U-578, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Fregattenkapitän Ernst-August Rehwinkel, went missing in the Bay of Biscay in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. No explanation exists for its loss. All of the ship’s complement of 49 died. During its career the U-578 sank 1 warship and 4 merchant ships for a total of 23,635 tons.  
   
  The U-612, commanded by Leutnant zur See Hans-Peter Dick, was sunk after a collision with U-444 near Gotenhafen, Poland in the Baltic Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 43 survived.. During its career the U-612 sank or damaged no ships.  
   
  Saturday, August 8, 1942  
  After sinking two merchant ships the U-379, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Paul-Hugo Kettner, was sunk by ramming and depth charges from the corvette HMS Dianthus (K 95) in the North Atlantic Ocean southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland. Of the ship’s complement, 40 died and 5 survived. During its career the U-379 sank 2 merchant ships for a total of 8,904 tons.  
   
  Thursday, August 20, 1942  
  The U-464, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Harms, was sunk by a U.S. Catalina aircraft southeast of Iceland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 52 survived. During its career the U-464 sank or damaged no ships.  
   
  Saturday, August 22, 1942  
  The U-654, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Ludwig Forster, was sunk by depth charges from a US B-18 Digby Bolo bomber in the Caribbean Sea north of Colon. All of the ship’s complement of 44 died. During its career the U-654 sank 1 auxiliary warship and 3 merchant ships for a total of 17,755 tons.  
   
  Friday, August 28, 1942  
  The U-94, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Otto Ites, was sunk by depth charges from an American Catalina aircraftand ramming by the Canadian corvette HMCS Oakville (K 178) in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 19 died and 26 survived. During its career the U-94 sank 26 merchant ships for a total of 141,852 tons and damaged 1 merchant ship for a total of 8,022 tons.  
   
  Attacks on Allied and Neutral Merchant Ships  
  Saturday, August 1, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Clan Macnaughton was torpedoed and sunk by the U-155, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening, approximately 180 miles east of Tobago in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 77 survivors were picked up by the British motor merchant Empire Bede. The 6,088 ton Clan Macnaughton was carrying cotton and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted Dutch steam merchant Kentar was torpedoed and sunk by the U-155 approximately 130 miles southeast of Barbados. Of the ship’s complement, 17 died and 62 survived. The 5,878 ton Kentar was carrying manganese ore and was headed for St. John’s, New Brunswick.  
   
  The Soviet steam merchant Krest’janin was torpedoed and sunk by the U-601, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Peter-Ottmar Grau, west of Mezhdysharskiy Island in the Arctic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 38 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 2,513 ton Krest’janin was carrying coal and was headed for Belushya Guba, Novaya Zemlya.  
   
  Sunday, August 2, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Treminnard was torpedoed and sunk by the U-160, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Georg Lassen, about 200 miles east of Trinidad in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 39 survived and were picked up by the Argentinean steam merchant Rio San Juan. The 4,694 ton Treminnard was carrying ballast and was headed for Ciudad Trujillo, Santo Domingo.  
   
  The unescorted British steam merchant Flora II was torpedoed and sunk by the U-254, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Gilardone, 60 miles southeast of Vestmannaeyar, Iceland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 30 survived and were picked up by the Icelandic trawler Juni. The 1,218 ton Flora II was carrying fish and ice and was headed for Hull, England.  
   
  The unescorted Uruguayan steam merchant Maldonado was torpedoed and sunk by the U-510, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl Neitzel, in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 49 survived. The 5,285 ton Maldonado was carrying canned meat, hides, wool, and fats and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Monday, August 3, 1942  
  The unescorted British motor tanker Tricula was torpedoed and sunk by the U-108, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Klaus Scholtz, approximately 250 miles northeast of Trinidad in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 47 died and 11 survivors were picked up by the Argentinean steam merchant Rio San Juan. The 6,221 ton Tricula was carrying crude oil and was headed for Capetown, South Africa.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-115, the British Motor merchant Lochkatrine was torpedoed and sunk by the U-552, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erich Topp, east of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 81 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMCS Hamilton and the corvette HMCS Agassiz (K 129). The 9,419 ton Lochkatrine was carrying ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ON-115, the British Motor tanker G.S. Walden was torpedoed and damaged by the U-552 east of Cape Race. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died. The 10,627 ton G.S. Walden managed to reach port and was repaired.  
   
  The 229 ton British steam trawler Bombay was torpedoed and sunk by the U-605, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Herbert-Viktor Schütze, in the Icelandic fishing grounds of the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 13 died.  
   
  Tuesday, August 4, 1942  
  Dispersed from Convoy E-6, the British steam merchant Empire Arnold was torpedoed and sunk by the U-155, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening, about 500 miles northeast of Trinidad in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 52 survivors were picked up by the Norwegian merchant Dalvanger. The 7,045 ton Empire Arnold was carrying government stores, including tanks and aircraft and was headed for Alexandria, Egypt.  
   
  The unescorted British motor merchant Richmond Castle was torpedoed and sunk by the U-176, commanded by Reiner Dierksen, southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 14 died and 50 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Sunflower (K 41) and the British merchant Hororater. The 7,798 ton Richmond Castle was carrying frozen meat and was headed for Avonmouth, England.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy ON-115 after being damaged the day before by the U-553, the Belgian steam merchant Belgian Soldier was torpedoed and sunk by the U-607, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Ernst Mengersen, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 21 died and 39 survived. The 7,167 ton Belgian Soldier was carrying was headed for the United States.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian Motor tanker Havsten was torpedoed and damaged by the U-160, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Georg Lassen, off the coast of South America. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 31 survived. The 6,161 ton Havsten was carrying ballast and was bound for Trinidad.  
   
  Wednesday, August 5, 1942  
  The unescorted and unarmed Dutch motor merchant Draco was sunk by gunfire by the U-155, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening, about 325 miles east of Barbados. Of the ship’s complement, all 16 survived. The 389 ton Draco was carrying general cargo and was headed for Curaçao.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy ON-115, the British Steam tanker Arletta was torpedoed and sunk by the U-458, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Kurt Diggins, south-southwest of Cape Race, Greenland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 36 died and 5 survivors were picked up by the US Coast Guard ship USS Menemsha (AG 39). The 4,870 ton Arletta was carrying ballast and was headed for Halifax, Nova Scotia.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-94, the Dutch steam merchant Spar was torpedoed and sunk by the U-593, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Gerd Kelbling, south of Greenland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 36 survived. The 3,616 ton Spar was carrying general cargo, including sugar, fruit pulp, timber, tobacco, and cars and was headed for London, England.  
   
  Thursday, August 6, 1942  
  The unescorted Polish motor merchant Rozewie was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Markworth, off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 15 survived. The master was taken prisoner by the U-boat. The 766 ton Rozewie was carrying general cargo and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The unescorted and unarmed American sailing ship Wawaloam was shelled and then torpedoed and sunk by the U-86, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter Schug, about 460 miles south of Cape Race, Newfoundland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 7 survived and were picked up by the Irish steam merchant Irish Rose. The 342 ton Wawaloam was carrying molasses and was headed for St. John’s, Newfoundland.  
   
  Friday, August 7, 1942  
  The Norwegian motor merchant Breñas was torpedoed and sunk by the U-108, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Klaus Scholtz, off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 39 survived. The master was taken prisoner by the U-boat. The 2,687 ton Breñas was carrying general cargo and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Dispersed from an unknown convoy the day before, the Norwegian steam tanker Arthur W. Sewall was torpedoed and sunk by the U-109, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Bleichrodt, in the south central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 36 survived and were picked up by the Greek steam merchant Athina Livanos. The 6,030 ton Arthur W. Sewall was carrying ballast and was headed for Trinidad.  
   
  The Dutch steam merchant Delfshaven was torpedoed and sunk by the U-572, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinz Hirsacker, in the south central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 38 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 5,281 ton Delfshaven was carrying general cargo and ammunition and other war materials and was headed for Bombay, India.  
   
  Saturday, August 8, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy SC-94, the British steam merchant Kelso was torpedoed and sunk by the U-176, commanded by Reiner Dierksen, southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 41 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMCS Battleford (K 165). The 3,956 ton Kelso was carrying general cargo, including ammunition and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-94, the Greek steam merchant Mount Kassion was torpedoed and sunk by the U-176 southeast of Cape Farewell. Of the ship’s complement, all 54 survived. The 7,914 ton Mount Kassion was carrying general cargo and was headed for Cardiff, Wales.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-94, the British steam merchant Trehata was torpedoed and sunk by the U-176 southeast of Cape Farewell. Of the ship’s complement, 31 died and 25 survivors were picked up by the Norwegian steam merchant Inger Lise. The 4,817 ton Trehata was carrying steel, manufactured goods and foodstuffs, including lard and cheese and was headed for Manchester, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-94, the British steam merchant Anneberg was torpedoed and sunk by the U-379, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Paul-Hugo Kettner, southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 38 survived and were picked up by the corvettes HMCS Battleford (K 165), HMS Nasturtium (K 107), and the HMS Primrose (K 91). The 2,537 ton Anneberg was carrying pulp and was headed for Ellesmere Port, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-94, the American steam merchant Kaimoku was torpedoed and sunk by the U-379 southeast of Cape Farewell. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 46 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMCS Battleford (K 165). The 6,367 ton Kaimoku was carrying general cargo and steel and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sunday, August 9, 1942  
  The unescorted Norwegian steam tanker Malmanger was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, about 750 miles west of Sierra Leone in the south central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 16 died and 18 survivors reached land by lifeboat except for the master and the first engineer who were taken prisoner. The 7,078 ton Malmanger was carrying fuel oil and was headed for Pointe Noire, Congo.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy E-7, the British motor tanker San Emiliano was torpedoed and sunk by the U-155, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening, about 450 miles west of Trinidad in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 40 died and 8 survivors were picked up by a U.S. Army transport. The 8,071 ton San Emiliano was carrying aviation fuel and was headed for Suez, Egypt.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-94, the British steam merchant Radchurch was torpedoed and sunk by the U-176, commanded by Reiner Dierksen, southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 40 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMCS Battleford (K 165). The 3,701 ton Radchurch was carrying iron ore and was headed for Barry, England.  
   
  The Dutch steam merchant Mendanau was torpedoed and sunk by the U-752, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Ernst Schroeter), off the western coast of Africa in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 69 died and 16 survived. The 6,047 ton Mendanau was carrying military cargo, including locomotives, trucks, aircraft, coal, and supplies and was headed for Alexandria, Egypt.  
   
  Monday, August 10, 1942  
  The Dutch motor merchant Strabo was sunk by gunfire by the U-155, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Adolf Cornelius Piening, about 250 miles east of Georgetown off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 13 survived and reached land by lifeboat. The 383 ton Strabo was carrying babasu coconuts and was headed for Barranquilla, Colombia.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-94, the Greek steam merchant Condylis was torpedoed and sunk by the U-438, commanded by Rudolf Franzius, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 26 survived. The 4,439 ton Condylis was carrying grain and trucks and was headed for London, England.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-94, the British steam merchant Oregon was torpedoed and sunk by the U-438 in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 40 survivors were picked up by the corvettes HMS Dianthus (K 95) and HMS Nasturtium (K 107). The 6,008 ton Oregon was carrying general cargo including foodstuffs and steel and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-94, the British steam merchant Cape Race was torpedoed and sunk by the U-660, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Götz Baur, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 63 survived and were picked up by the corvettes HMS Nasturtium (K 107) and HMS Dianthus (K 95). The 3,807 ton Cape Race was carrying timber and steel and was headed for Manchester, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-94, the British steam merchant Empire Reindeer was torpedoed and sunk by the U-660 in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 65 survived and were picked up by the corvettes HMS Nasturtium (K 107) and HMS Dianthus (K 95). The 6,259 ton Empire Reindeer was carrying general cargo and government stores and was headed for Hull, England.  
   
  The British schooner Vivian P. Smith was sunk by gunfire by the U-600, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Bernhard Zurmühlen, in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 11 survived. The 130 ton Vivian P. Smith was carrying salt and was headed for Barbados.  
   
  The British motor tanker Alexia was torpedoed and damaged by the U-510, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl Neitzel, in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 64 survived. The 8,016 ton Alexia was carrying ballast and was bound for Curaçao.  
   
  Tuesday, August 11, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam tanker Vimeira was torpedoed and sunk by the U-109, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Bleichrodt, about 500 miles southwest of the Cape Verde Islands in the south central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 23 died and 22 survived. The 5,728 ton Vimeira was carrying gas oil and fuel oil and was headed for Freetown, Sierra Leone.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy E-6, the Norwegian steam tanker Mirlo was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, about 870 miles west-southwest of Freetown, Sierra Leone, in the south central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 37 survived. The 7,455 ton Mirlo was carrying fuel oil and diesel and was headed for Freetown.  
   
  Wednesday, August 12, 1942  
  Sailing with Special Convoy 12, the Cuban steam merchant Manzanillo was sunk by the U-508, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Georg Staats, south of Florida in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 23 died. The 1,025 ton Manzanillo was carrying general cargo and was headed for Havana, Cuba.  
   
  Sailing with Special Convoy 12, the Cuban steam merchant Santiago de Cuba was sunk by the U-508 south of Florida. Of the ship’s complement, 10 died and 19 survived. The 1,685 ton Santiago de Cuba was carrying general cargo and was headed for Havana, Cuba.  
   
  Thursday, August 13, 1942  
  The unescorted American steam tanker R.M. Parker Jr. was torpedoed and sunk by the U-171, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Pfeffer, about 25 miles south of Isles Dernieres, Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the ship’s complement, all 44 survived and were picked up by the U.S. Coast Guard auxiliary craft USS Pioneer. The 6,779 ton R.M. Parker Jr. was carrying water ballast and was headed for Port Arthur, Texas.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-12, the American steam merchant Delmundo was torpedoed and sunk by the U-600, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Bernhard Zurmühlen, approximately 18 miles south of Cape Maysi, Cuba. Of the ship’s complement, 8 died and 50 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Churchill (I 45). The 5,032 ton Delmundo was carrying general cargo and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-12, the Latvian steam merchant Everelza was torpedoed and sunk by the U-600, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Bernhard Zurmühlen, approximately 18 miles south of Cape Maysi. Of the ship’s complement, 23 died and 14 survived. The 4,520 ton Everelza was carrying manganese Ore and was headed for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy WAT-13, the Dutch steam merchant Medea was torpedoed and sunk by the U-658, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Senkel, off the southeast coast of Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 23 survivors were picked up by an American escort. The 1,311 ton Medea was carrying general cargo and dynamite and was headed for Venezuela.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant Cripple Creek was torpedoed and sunk by the U-752, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Ernst Schroeter, about 400 miles off the coast of Sierra Leone in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 51 survivors were picked up by the armed trawler HMS St. Winstan (T 105). The 6,347 ton Cripple Creek was carrying war supplies and was headed for the Persian Gulf.  
   
  Friday, August 14, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-12J, the British steam tanker Empire Corporal was torpedoed and sunk by the U-598, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Gottfried Holtorf, northwest of Barlovento Point, Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 49 survivors were picked up by the USS PT-498. The 6,972 ton Empire Corporal was carrying motor fuel and white fuel and was headed for Key West, Florida.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-12J, the British steam merchant Michael Jebsen was torpedoed and sunk by the U-598 northwest of Barlovento Point, Cuba. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 40 survivors were picked up by an American patrol boat. The 2,323 ton Michael Jebsen was carrying sugar and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-12J, the British motor tanker Standella was torpedoed and damaged by the U-598 northwest of Barlovento Point, Cuba. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 52 survived. The 6,197 ton U-598 was carrying oil and spirits.  
   
  Saturday, August 15, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy SC-95, the American steam merchant Balladier was torpedoed and sunk by the U-705, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Horst Horn, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died and 32 survivors were picked up by the American steam merchant Norluna. The 3,279 ton Balladier was carrying general cargo composed mainly of lumber and steel pipe and was headed for Reykjavik, Iceland.  
   
  Sunday, August 16, 1942  
  The neutral Brazilian steam merchant Annibal Benévolo was torpedoed and sunk by the U-507, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Harro Schacht, 15 miles off the mouth of the River Real off the coast of Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 150 died and 4 survived. The 1,905 ton Annibal Benévolo was carrying passengers and general cargo and was headed for Aracaju, Brazil.  
   
  The neutral Brazilian motor passenger ship Araraquara was torpedoed and sunk by the U-507 approximately 20 off the mouth of the River Real. Of the ship’s complement, 131 died and 11 survived. The 4,872 ton Araraquara was carrying passengers and general cargo and was headed for Pernambuco, Brazil.  
   
  The neutral Brazilian steam merchant Baependy was torpedoed and sunk by the U-507 approximately 20 miles off Aracaju, Brazil. Of the ship’s complement, 270 died and 36 survived. The 4,801 ton Baependy was carrying passengers and troops and was headed for Recife, Brazil.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-95, the Swedish motor merchant Suecia was stopped and after the crew abandoned ship was torpedoed and sunk by the U-596, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Gunter Jahn, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 38 survived. The 4,966 ton Suecia was carrying general cargo, including steel, phosphate, tobacco, and pulp and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Monday, August 17, 1942  
  The neutral Brazilian steam merchant Arará was torpedoed and sunk by the U-507, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Harro Schacht, approximately 9 miles off the São Paulo Lighthouse, Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 20 died and 16 survived. The 1,075 ton Arará was carrying scrap iron and was headed for Santos, Brazil.  
   
  The neutral Brazilian steam merchant Itagiba was torpedoed and sunk by the U-507 approximately 9 miles off the São Paulo Lighthouse. Of the ship’s complement, 36 died and 145 survived. The 2,169 ton Itagiba was carrying passengers and general cargo and was headed for Pernambuco, Brazil.  
   
  The unescorted American motor tanker Louisiana was torpedoed and sunk by the U-108, commanded by Korvettenkapitän U-108, about 200 miles from Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 49 died. The 8,587 ton Louisiana was carrying gasoline and gas oil and was headed for Santos, Brazil.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SL-118, the Norwegian motor merchant Triton was torpedoed and sunk by the U-566, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Remus, northeast of the Azores in the central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 43 survived and were picked up by the British steam merchant Baron Dunmore. The 6,607 ton Triton was carrying zinc concentrates, wool, wheat, and mail and was headed for Belfast, Ireland.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy PG-6, the British steam merchant Fort la Reine was torpedoed and sunk by the U-658, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Senkel, in the Windward Passage west of Haiti in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 41 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Pimpernel (K 71) and a U.S. patrol boat. The 7,133 ton Fort la Reine was carrying general cargo, grain, and lumber and was headed for London, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy PG-6, the British motor merchant Laguna was torpedoed and damaged by the U-658 in the Windward Passage west of Haiti. Of the ship’s complement, all 58 survived. The 6,466 ton Laguna was carrying general cargo, including ore, cereals, cotton, and hemp and was bound for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy PG-6, the Egyptian steam merchant Samir was torpedoed and sunk by the U-658, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans Senkel, in the Windward Passage west of Haiti in the Caribbean Sea. The 3,702 ton Samir was carrying ballast and was headed for Guantanamo, Cuba.  
   
  Sailing with tug convoy, the Soviet steam tug Komiles was sunk by gunfire by the U-209, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Brodda, near Matveev Island west of Yugor Strait in the Arctic Ocean.  
   
  Sailing with tug convoy, the Soviet steam tug Komsomolec was sunk by gunfire by the U-209 near Matveev Island.  
   
  Sailing with tug convoy, the Soviet barge P-4 was sunk by gunfire by the U-209 near Matveev Island. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 305 died and 21 survived. The 500 ton P-4 was carrying workers from Pechora port.  
   
  Sailing with tug convoy, the 500 ton Soviet barge Sh-500 was sunk by gunfire by the U-209 near Matveev Island.  
   
  Tuesday, August 18, 1942  
  Sailing with Convoy SL-118, the Dutch steam merchant Balingkar was torpedoed and sunk by the U-214, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Reeder, northeast of the Azores in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 91 survived. The 6,318 ton Balingkar was carrying general cargo, including rubber, tea, seed, copper, and cotton and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SL-118, the British steam merchant Hatarana was torpedoed and sunk by the U-214 northeast of the Azores. Of the ship’s complement, all 108 survived and were picked up by the HMS Pentstemon (K 61) and the British steam merchant Corabella. The 7,522 ton Hatarana was carrying general cargo and was headed for Glasgow, Scotland.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-13, the Swedish motor merchant Blankaholm was torpedoed and sunk by the U-553, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl Thurmann, approximately 95 miles west of Guantanamo Bay in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 23 survived. The 2,845 ton Blankaholm was carrying bauxite and was headed for Halifax, Nova Scotia.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-13, the British motor merchant Empire Bede was torpedoed and sunk by the U-553 approximately 95 miles west of Guantanamo Bay. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 43 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Pimpernel (K 71). The 6,959 ton Empire Bede was carrying cotton and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-13, the American steam merchant John Hancock was torpedoed and sunk by the U-553, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl Thurmann, approximately 95 miles west of Guantanamo Bay. Of the ship’s complement, all 49 survived and were picked up by a British corvette. The 7,176 ton John Hancock was carrying sugar and was headed for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  
   
  Wednesday, August 19, 1942  
  The neutral Brazilian sailing ship Jacyra was sunk by gunfire by the U-507, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Harro Schacht, about 10 miles off Itacaré, Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 6 survived. The 89 ton Jacyra was carrying cacao, coconuts, bananas and piaçaba, boxes of empty bottles, and a dismantled truck and was headed for Salvador, Brazil.  
   
  American steam merchant West Celina was torpedoed and sunk by the U-162, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Jürgen Wattenberg, about 95 miles northeast of Margarita Island, Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 43 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 5,722 ton West Celina was carrying general cargo, including manganese ore, mica, rubber, and 250 monkeys on the boat deck and was headed for Boston, Massachusetts.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SL-118, the British steam merchant City of Manila was torpedoed and sunk by the U-406, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Dieterichs, west of Cape Finisterre off the west coast Spain in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 95 survivors were picked up by the British merchant Empire Voice and the sloop HMS Gorleston (Y 92). The 7,452 ton City of Manila was carrying general cargo, including pig iron and groundnuts and was headed for Glasgow, Scotland.  
   
  The unescorted British motor merchant Cressington Court was torpedoed and sunk by the U-510, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl Neitzel, northeast of Belem in the south central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 8 died and 36 survivors were picked up by the Dutch motor tanker Woensdrecht and two American patrol vessels. The 4,971 ton Cressington Court was carrying government stores and general cargo and was headed for Alexandria, Egypt.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW(S), the British steam tanker British Consul was torpedoed and sunk by the U-564, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Suhren, north of Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 40 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Clarkia (K 88). The 6,940 ton British Consul was carrying ballast and was headed for Key West, Florida.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW(S), the British steam tanker Empire Cloud was torpedoed and sunk by the U-564 north of Venezuela. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 51 survived. The 5,969 ton Empire Cloud was carrying ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The British sailing ship Sea Gull D. was sunk by gunfire by the U-217, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Kurt Reichenbach-Klinke, in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 45 survived. The 75 ton Sea Gull D. was headed for Aruba, England.  
   
  Friday, August 21, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant City of Wellington was torpedoed and sunk by the U-506, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erich Würdemann, southwest of Freetown, Sierra Leone, in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 66 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Velox (D 34). The 5,733 ton City of Wellington was carrying general cargo, copper ore, and chrome ore and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  Saturday, August 22, 1942  
  Dispersed from Convoy OS-36, the Swedish motor merchant Hammaren was torpedoed and sunk by the U-507, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Harro Schacht, about 40 miles off Bahia, Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 25 survived. The 3,220 ton Hammaren was headed for Rio Grande, Brazil.  
   
  The Soviet motor boat Chaika was anchored off the Matyuschev Isle west of the Matochkin Strait in the Arctic Ocean when it was taken in tow unnoticed by the Soviets by the U-456, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Max-Martin Teichert. After searching the boat and finding nothing valuable except of four infantry guns the crew of the U-456 sank the Chaika using scuttling charges.  
   
  Sunday, August 23, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Hamla was torpedoed and sunk by the U-506, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Erich Würdemann, south of Freetown, Sierra Leone in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 38 died. The 4,416 ton Hamla was carrying manganese ore and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  Monday, August 24, 1942  
  The unescorted Dutch steam merchant Moena was torpedoed and sunk by the U-162, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Jürgen Wattenberg, 100 miles east of Barbados in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 83 survivors were picked up by the British motor merchant Cromarty. The 9,286 ton Moena was carrying colonial produce and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  The unescorted Soviet steam merchant Kujbyshev was torpedoed and sunk by the U-601, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Peter-Ottmar Grau, northwest of Dikson Island in the Arctic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement died. The 2,332 ton Kujbyshev was headed for Dikson Island.  
   
  The 50 ton Soviet harbor tug Medvezhonok was sunk by gunfire by the U-601 northwest of Dikson Island. All of the ship’s complement died.  
   
  Tuesday, August 25, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Viking Star was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, about 160 miles south-southwest of Freetown, Sierra Leone in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 54 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 6,445 ton Viking Star was carrying refrigerated cargo and fertilizers and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy WAT-15, the Dutch steam merchant Stad Amsterdam was torpedoed and sunk by the U-164, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Otto Fechner, in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 35 survived. The 3,780 ton Stad Amsterda was carrying general cargo and mail and was headed for Demerara, Dutch Guiana.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ONS-122, the British steam merchant Empire Breeze was torpedoed and sunk by the U-176, commanded by Reiner Dierksen, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 48 survived. The 7,457 ton Empire Breeze was carrying ballast and was headed for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ONS-122, the Norwegian steam merchant Trolla was torpedoed and sunk by the U-438, commanded by Rudolf Franzius, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 6 died and 16 survivors were picked up by the Norwegian corvette HNoMS Potentilla (K 214). The 1,598 ton Trolla was carrying ballast and was headed for Sydney, Nova Scotia.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy WAT-15, the British steam merchant Amakura was torpedoed and sunk by the U-558, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Günther Krech, about 90 miles southeast of Port Morant, Jamaica in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died and 31 survived. The 1,987 ton Amakura was carrying general cargo, including acids and mail and was headed for Demerara, Dutch Guiana.  
   
  The unescorted Dutch motor merchant Abbekerk was torpedoed and sunk by the U-604, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Horst Höltring, in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 62 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Wallflower (K 44). The 7,906 ton Abbekerk was carrying sugar, general cargo and mail and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ONS-122, the British steam merchant Katvaldis was torpedoed and sunk by the U-605, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Herbert-Viktor Schütze, southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 40 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Stockport. The 3,163 ton Katvaldis was carrying ballast and was headed for Clarke City, Quebec.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy ONS-122, the British steam merchant Sheaf Mount was torpedoed and sunk by the U-605 southeast of Cape Farewell. Of the ship’s complement, 31 died and 20 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Stockport. The 5,017 ton Sheaf Mount was carrying ballast and was headed for Botwood, Newfoundland.  
   
  Wednesday, August 26, 1942  
  The unescorted British steam merchant Beechwood was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Kals, south of Monrovia, Liberia in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 43 survivors were picked up by the RFA fleet oiler Fortol except for the master who was taken prisoner. The 4,897 ton Beechwood was carrying general cargo and potash and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian motor tanker Thelma was torpedoed and sunk by the U-162, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Jürgen Wattenberg, off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 31 survivors were picked up by a British warship. The 8,297 ton Thelma was carrying ballast and was headed for the United States.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy LW-38, the British steam merchant Empire Kumari was torpedoed and sunk by the U-375, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Jürgen Könenkamp, northeast of Port Said, Egypt in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 89 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Gloxinia (K 22). The 6,288 ton Empire Kumari was carrying bagged potash and was headed for Port Said.  
   
  Thursday, August 27, 1942  
  A straggler from Convoy SL-119, the British steam merchant Clan Macwhirter was torpedoed and sunk by the U-156, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Werner Hartenstein, 200 miles northwest of Madeira in the central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 11 died and 75 survivors were picked up by the Portuguese sloop Pedro Nunes (A 528). The 5,941 ton Clan Macwhirter was carrying manganese ore, linseed, pig iron, and general cargo and was headed for Hull, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-15, the Dutch motor tanker Rotterdam was torpedoed and sunk by the U-511, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Steinhoff, approximately 120 miles south-southeast of Guantanamo in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 10 died and 37 survivors were picked up by the submarine chaser USS SC-522. The 8,968 ton Rotterdam was carrying gasoline and was headed for London, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-15, the British steam tanker San Fabian was torpedoed and sunk by the U-511 approximately 120 miles south-southeast of Guantanamo. Of the ship’s complement, 26 died and 33 survivors were picked up by the patrol craft USS PC-38. The 13,031 ton San Fabian was carrying fuel oil and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy TAW-15, the American steam tanker Esso Aruba was torpedoed and damaged by the U-511 approximately 120 miles south-southeast of Guantanamo. Of the ship’s complement, all 60 survived. The 8,773 ton Esso Aruba was carrying diesel fuel and was bound for New York, New York.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SG-6F, the American steam passenger ship Chatham was torpedoed and sunk by the U-517, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Paul Härtwig, off the coast of Canada in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 14 died and 548 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Bernadou (DD-153), the corvette HMCS Trail (K 174) and the USS Mojave (WPG 47). The 5,649 ton Chatham was carrying food supplies and passengers and was headed for Greenland.  
   
  The unescorted British motor merchant Port Jackson was torpedoed and damaged by the U-516, commanded by Gerhard Wiebe, approximately 480 miles west of Cape Clear, Ireland in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. The 9,687 ton Port Jackson was carrying refrigerated and general cargo and was bound for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Friday, August 28, 1942  
  A straggler from Convoy SG-6, the American steam merchant Arlyn was torpedoed and sunk by the U-517, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Paul Härtwig, at the north end of Belle Isle Strait in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 12 died and 42 survived. The 3,304 ton Arlyn was carrying general cargo, including gas, trucks and explosives and was headed for Hudson Bay, Canada.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SL-119, the British steam merchant City of Cardiff was torpedoed and sunk by the U-566, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Remus, west-northwest of Lisbon, Portugal in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 21 died and 63 survivors were picked up by the sloop HMS Rochester (L 50). The 5,661 ton City of Cardiff was carrying general cargo, including copper and was headed for Manchester, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SL-119, the Dutch steam merchant Zuiderkerk was torpedoed and sunk by the U-566 west-northwest of Lisbon. Of the ship’s complement, all 68 survived and were picked up by the sloop HMS Leith (L 36). The 8,424 ton Zuiderkerk was carrying general cargo, including wool, cotton, oilseeds, and hides and was headed for Clyde, United Kingdom.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy U-165, the American fleet oiler USS Laramie (AO 16) was torpedoed and damaged by the U-165, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Eberhard Hoffmann, at the north end of Belle Isle Strait in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 103 survived. The 7,252 ton USS Laramie was carrying aviation gasoline, oil and general cargo, including depth charges and was bound for Greenland.  
   
  Saturday, August 29, 1942  
  The unescorted American steam merchant Topa Topa was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Markworth, about 350 miles north of Cayenne, French Guiana in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 25 died and 35D survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Clan Macinnes. The 5,356 ton Topa Topa was carrying general cargo, including cars, aircraft and gasoline and was headed for Lagos, Nigeria.  
   
  Sunday, August 30, 1942  
  The unescorted American steam merchant Star of Oregon was torpedoed and sunk by the U-162, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Jürgen Wattenberg, about 50 miles northeast of Tobago in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 52 survivors were picked up by an American patrol boat. The 7,176 ton Star of Oregon was carrying general cargo, manganese ore, and military stores and was headed for the United States.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian motor tanker Vardaas was torpedoed and sunk by the U-564, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhard Suhren, northeast of Tobago Island off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 41 survived reached land by lifeboat. The 8,176 ton Vardaas was carrying ballast and was headed for Trinidad.  
   
  The unescorted Panamanian motor merchant Sir Huon was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Markworth, off the coast of South America in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 46 survived and were picked up by the Panamanian steam merchant Tambour and the Argentine steam tanker 13 de Diciembre. The 6,049 ton Sir Huon was carrying manganese and chrome ore, sisal, general cargo, including wool, asbestos and captured damaged Italian and German tanks on deck and was headed for Baltimore, Maryland.  
   
  The unescorted American steam merchant West Lashaway was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Markworth, about 375 miles east of Trinidad in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 38 died and 18 survived. The 5,637 ton West Lashaway was carrying tin, copper, cocoa beans, and palm oil and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Monday, August 31, 1942  
  The unescorted American steam tanker Jack Carnes was torpedoed and sunk by the U-516, commanded by Gerhard Wiebe, north of the Azores in the central Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 28 died and 28 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 10,907 ton Jack Carnes was carrying water ballast and was headed for Aruba.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-97, the Norwegian motor merchant Bronxville was torpedoed and sunk by the U-609, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Klaus Rudloff, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 39 survived and were picked up by the British rescue ship Perth. The 4,663 ton Bronxville was carrying General cargo, including explosives and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-97, the Panamanian steam merchant Capira was torpedoed and sunk by the U-609, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Klaus Rudloff, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 49 survivors were picked up by the British rescue ship Perth. The 5,625 ton Capira was carrying General cargo, including trucks, tractors, steel mats, bulldozers, and U.S. mail and was headed for Glasgow, Scotland.  
   
  Dispersed from Convoy TRIN-3, the unescorted British steam tanker Winamac was torpedoed and sunk by the U-66, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Markworth, about 390 miles east of Trinidad in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 30 died and 21 survivors were picked up by the British motor merchant Empire Lugard. The 8,621 ton Winamac was carrying fuel oil and was headed for São Miguel, Azores.  
   
  The 60 ton Honduran sailing ship Sande was sunk by gunfire by an unknown U-boat in the Caribbean Sea.  
   
  Other Battle of the Atlantic Events  
  Saturday, August 22, 1942  
  The destroyer USS Ingraham was sunk in a collision with the oiler USS Chemung off Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic Ocean.  
   
  Sunday, August 23, 1942  
  The heavy cruiser USS Tuscaloosa, escorted by the destroyers USS Rodman, USS Emmons, and HMS Onslaught, arrived at Murmansk, Soviet Union, and disembarked men and unloaded equipment from two RAF Bomber Command squadrons that had been transferred to the northern Soviet Union in Operation Europe. The ships departed the following day to return to the British fleet base at Scapa Flow, Scotland.  
     
   
     
   
 

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