March 1943 events of the Battle of the Atlantic  
  Naval Action in the Atlantic Ocean  
  Thursday, March 11, 1943  
  The destroyer HMS Harvester (H 19), commanded by Commander Arthur A. Tait, was torpedoed and sunk by the U-432, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hermann Eckhardt, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The HMS Harvester was the flagship of the Escort Group B3, escorting convoy HX-228, and had just previously picked up 51 survivors from the William C. Gorgas, which had been sunk by the U-757. The HMS Harvester then sighted and rammed the U-444 and was disabled during the action. The now stationary HMS Harvester was then an easy target for the U-432. Of the ship’s complement, 183 died and 60 survivors were picked up by the corvette FFL Aconit (K 58) including 12 survivors from William C. Gorgas.  
   
  Saturday, March 27, 1943  
  The escort carrier HMS Dasher (D 37), commanded by Captain Lennox A. K. Boswell,was in the Firth of Clyde with her Swordfish planes practicing take offs and landings. Suddenly a violent internal explosion of an accidental aviation fuel blew apart the aft elevator and the ship sank by the stern within. Oil from the ship caught fire and spread across the water to the survivors. 379 men drowned and 149 men were picked up by rescue vessels.  
   
  U-Boat Losses  
  Thursday, March 11, 1943  
  The U-444, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Albert Langfeld, was sunk by ramming and depth charges from the British destroyer HMS Harvester (H 19) and the corvette FFL Aconit (K 58) in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 41 died and 4 survivors were picked up by the FFL Aconit.  
   
  Friday, March 19, 1943  
  The U-384, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Achim von Rosenberg-Gruszcynski, southwest of Iceland by depth charges from a British Fortress aircraft from Squadron 206/B. Of the 47 man crew, all hands were lost.  
   
  Attacks on Allied and Neutral Merchant Ships  
  Monday, March 1, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy BT-6, the American steam merchant Fitz-John Porter was torpedoed and sunk by the U-518, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich-Wilhelm Wissmann, off the coast of Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 54 survivors were picked up by the Brazilian minelayer Carioca. The 7,176 ton Fitz-John Porter was carrying ballast and was headed for the United States.  
   
  Tuesday, March 2, 1943  
  A straggler from Convoy HX-227, the American steam merchant Meriwether Lewis was torpedoed and sunk by the U-634, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Eberhard Dahlhaus, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 69 died. The 7,176 ton Meriwether Lewis was carrying ammunition and tires and was headed for North Russia.  
   
  Thursday, March 4, 1943  
  The unescorted British steam merchant City of Pretoria was torpedoed and sunk by the U-172, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Carl Emmermann, west-northwest of the Azores in the mid Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 145 died. The 8,049 ton City of Pretoria was carrying general cargo and explosives and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  The unescorted British motor merchant California Star was torpedoed and sunk by the U-515, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Werner Henke, about 380 miles northwest of Flores, Azores in the mid Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 50 died and 24 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 8,300 ton California Star was carrying general and refrigerated cargo and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Friday, March 5, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy XK-2, the British steam merchant Empire Tower was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Siegfried Keller, northwest of Lisbon, Portugal in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 42 died and 3 survivors were picked up by the ASW Trawler HMS Loch Oskaig (FY 175). The 4,378 ton Empire Tower was carrying iron ore and was headed for Middlesbrough, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy XK-2, the British steam merchant Fidra was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130 northwest of Lisbon. Of the ship’s complement, 17 died and 12 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Coreopsis (K 32). The 1,574 ton Fidra was carrying iron ore and was headed for Barrow, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy XK-2, the British steam merchant Ger-y-Bryn was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130 northwest of Lisbon. Of the ship’s complement, all 47 survived and were picked up by the corvette HMS Coreopsis (K 32). The 5,108 ton Ger-y-Bryn was carrying West African produce and was headed for Hull, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy XK-2, the British steam merchant Trefusis was torpedoed and sunk by the U-130 northwest of Lisbon. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 44 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Coreopsis (K 32). The 5,299 ton Trefusis was carrying iron ore and was headed for London, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy RA-53, the American Steam merchant Executive was torpedoed and sunk by the U-255, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Reinhart Reche, in the far northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 9 died and 53 survivors were picked up by the ASW trawlers HMS St. Elstan (FY 240) and the HMS Northern Pride (FY 105). The 4,978 ton Executive was carrying potassium chloride and was headed for Loch Ewe, Scotland.  
   
  Saturday, March 6, 1943  
  The unescorted Norwegian motor merchant Thorstrand was torpedoed and sunk by the U-172, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Carl Emmermann, about 550 miles west of the Azores in the mid Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 43 survivors were picked up by an American warship. The 3,041 ton Thorstrand was carrying general cargo and was headed for St. John, New Brunswick, Canada.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy KMS-10, the British steam merchant Fort Battle River was torpedoed and sunk by the U-410, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Horst-Arno Fenski, west of Gibraltar in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 65 survived and were picked up by the corvette HMCS Shediac (K 110). The 7,133 ton Fort Battle River was carrying government stores and was headed for Bougie, Algeria.  
   
  Sunday, March 7, 1943  
  The Norwegian motor merchant Jamaica was torpedoed and sunk by the U-221, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Hartwig Trojer, in the mid Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 21 died and 17 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Borage (K 120). The 3,015 ton Jamaica was carrying ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-121, the British steam merchant Egyptian was torpedoed and sunk by the U-230, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Paul Siegmann, south-southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 46 died and 3 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMCS Rosthern (K 169). The 2,868 ton Egyptian was carrying West African produce, including oil seed, palm oil and tin ore and was headed for Loch Ewe, Scotland.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-121, the British steam merchant Empire Impala was torpedoed and sunk by the U-591, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Jürgen Zetzsche, south-southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 41 died. The 6,116 ton Empire Impala was carrying general cargo and was headed for Hull, England.  
   
  Monday, March 8, 1943  
  A straggler from Convoy SC-121, the British steam merchant Empire Lakeland was torpedoed and sunk by the U-190, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Max Wintermeyer, northwest of Rockall in the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 64 died. The 7,015 ton Empire Lakeland was carrying refrigerated and general cargo and was headed for Glasgow, Scotland.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-121, the British steam merchant Fort Lamy was torpedoed and sunk by the U-527, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Herbert Uhlig, southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 46 died and 5 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Vervain (K 190). The 5,242 ton Fort Lamy was carrying general cargo, explosives and a landing craft as deck cargo and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-121, the Yugoslavian steam merchant Vojvoda Putnik was torpedoed and sunk by the U-591, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Jürgen Zetzsche, about 600 miles east-southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 44 died. The 5,879 ton Vojvoda Putnik was carrying wheat and was headed for London, England.  
   
  A romper from Convoy xx, the British steam merchant Guido was torpedoed and sunk by the U-633, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Bernhard Müller, about 450 miles east-southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 10 died and 35 survivors were picked up by the cutter USCGC Spencer (WPG 36). The 3,921 ton Guido was carrying sugar, cotton, and mail and was headed for Greenock, Scotland.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-121, the British steam merchant Leadgate was torpedoed and sunk by the U-642, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Herbert Brünning, west of the Hebrides in the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 26 died. The 2,125 ton Leadgate was carrying general cargo and was headed for England.  
   
  Tuesday, March 9, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy SC-121, the Norwegian motor merchant Bonneville was torpedoed and sunk by the U-405, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Rolf-Heinrich Hopmann, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 36 died and 7 survivors were picked up by the rescue ship Melrose Abbey. The 4,665 ton Bonneville was carrying general cargo, explosives and a landing craft as deck cargo and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-121, the American steam merchant Malantic was torpedoed and sunk by the U-409, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hanns-Ferdinand Massmann, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 25 died and 22 survivors reached land by lifeboat. The 3,837 ton Malantic was carrying ammunition, bombs and general cargo and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-121, the British motor tanker Rosewood was torpedoed and sunk by the U-409 in the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 42 died. The 5,989 ton Rosewood was carrying fuel oil and was headed for Clyde, United Kingdom.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-121, the Swedish steam merchant Milos was torpedoed and sunk by the U-530, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Kurt Lange, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 30 died. The 3,058 ton Milos was carrying general cargo, including steel and lumber and was headed for Grimsby, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy BT-6, the British motor merchant Kelvinbank was torpedoed and sunk by the U-510, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Karl Neitzel, about 200 miles northeast of Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 28 died and 32 survivors were picked up by the American steam merchant George G. Meade. The 3,872 ton Kelvinbank was carrying ballast and was headed for Macoris, Cuba.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy RA-53, the American steam merchant Puerto Rican was torpedoed and sunk by the U-586, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Dietrich von der Esch, about 100 miles northeast of Iceland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 64 died and 1 survivor were picked up by the ASW trawler HMS St. Elstan (FY 240). The 6,076 ton Puerto Rican was carrying ore and was headed for the United States.  
   
  Wednesday, March 10, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy KG-123, the American steam merchant James Sprunt was torpedoed and sunk by the U-185, commanded by Kapitänleutnant August Maus, southeast of Guantanamo Bay in the Caribbean Sea. All of the ship’s complement of 69 died. The 7,177 ton James Sprunt was carrying explosives and was headed for Karachi, India.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy KG-123, the American steam tanker Virginia Sinclair was torpedoed and sunk by the U-185 off Cape Maysi, Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 7 died and 37 survivors were picked up by the USS SC-742. The 6,151 ton Virginia Sinclair was carrying aviation gasoline and was headed for Cristobal, Dominican Republic.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-228, the American steam merchant Andrea F. Luckenbach was torpedoed and sunk by the U-221, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Hartwig Trojer, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 20 died and 64 survivors were picked up by the British fleet oiler Orangeleaf. The 6,565 ton Andrea F. Luckenbach was carrying army equipment and explosives and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  The British steam merchant Tucurinca was torpedoed and sunk by the U-221 southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 81 survivors were picked up by the corvette FFL Roselys (K 57). The 5,412 ton Tucurinca was carrying general cargo, including foodstuffs and mail and was headed for Avonmouth, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-121, the British steam merchant Nailsea Court was torpedoed and sunk by the U-229, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Robert Schetelig, south of Reykjavik, Iceland in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 45 died and 4 survivors were picked up by the British rescue ship Melrose Abbey and the corvette HMCS Dauphin (K 157). The 4,946 ton Nailsea Court was carrying general cargo, including copper bars, nickel ore, and asbestos and was headed for London, England.  
   
  Thursday, March 11, 1943  
  The unescorted Honduran steam merchant Olancho was torpedoed and sunk by the U-183, commanded by Heinrich Schäfer, about 30 miles west of Cape San Antonio, Cuba in the Caribbean Sea. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 43 survivors were picked up by the Honduran steam merchant Choluteca and the seaplane tender USS Absecon (AVP 23). The 2,493 ton Olancho was carrying banana stems and deck cargo of mahogany logs and was headed for Tampa, Florida.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy ONS-169, the British steam merchant Baron Kinnaird was torpedoed and sunk by the U-621, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Max Kruschka, northwest of Belle Ile in the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 42 died. The 3,355 ton Baron Kinnaird was carrying ballast and was headed for Macoris, Dominican Republic.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy HX-228, the American Steam merchant William C. Gorgas was torpedoed and sunk by the U-757, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Deetz, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 22 died and 51 survivors were picked by the destroyerHMS Harvester (H 19), but only 12 survived when the destroyer was sunk by U-432 torpedoed the HMS Harvester later in the day. They were rescued by corvette FFL Aconit (K 58). The 7,197 ton William C. Gorgas was carrying general cargo, including metals, foodstuffs, cotton, TNT and aircraft, a landing craft and two PT boats as deck cargo and was headed for Swansea, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-228, the Norwegian steam merchant Brant County was torpedoed and sunk by the U-86, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter Schug, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 35 died and 23 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Stuart Prince. The 5,001 ton Brant County was carrying general cargo, a large amount of carbide, and ammunition and was headed for Newport, England.  
   
  Friday, March 12, 1943  
  A straggler from Convoy ON-168, the British motor tanker Empire Light was torpedoed and sunk by the U-468, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Klemens Schamong, southwest of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 45 died and 5 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Beverley (H 64). The 6,537 ton Empire Light was carrying ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  The drifting wreck of the American steam merchant Thomas Hooker was torpedoed and sunk by the U-653, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Feiler, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. During the night of March 5/6, 1943, the Thomas Hooker sailing with convoy ON-168 began developing structural damages in nearly hurricane winds and had to be abandoned. The 62 crew members were picked up by the corvette HMS Pimpernel (K 71). The 7,176 ton Thomas Hooker was carrying ballast and was headed for New York, New York.  
   
  Saturday, March 13, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy OS-44, the British steam merchant Clan Alpine was torpedoed and sunk by the U-107, commanded by Kapitänleutnant U-107, 190 miles west of Cape Finisterre on the west coast Spain in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 69 died. The 5,442 ton Clan Alpine was carrying general cargo, including army and naval stores and was headed for Port Sudan.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OS-44, the British steam merchant Marcella was torpedoed and sunk by the U-107190 miles west of Cape Finisterre. All of the ship’s complement of 44 died. The 4,592 ton Marcell was carrying commercial cargo and stores and was headed for Capetown, South Africa.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OS-44, the British steam merchant Oporto was torpedoed and sunk by the U-107190 miles west of Cape Finisterre. Of the ship’s complement, 43 died and 4 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Spiraea (K 08). The 2,352 ton Oporto was carrying sulphate of copper, seed, potatoes, and mail and was headed for Seville, Spain.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy OS-44, the Dutch steam merchant Sembilangan was torpedoed and sunk by the U-107190 miles west of Cape Finisterre. Of the ship’s complement, 86 died and 1 survivor was picked up by an escort vessel. The 4,990 ton Sembilangan was carrying general cargo and military stores, including ammunition and was headed for Alexandria, Egypt.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy UGS-6, the American steam merchant Keystone was torpedoed and sunk by the U-172, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Carl Emmermann, about 450 miles west of the Azores in the mid Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 70 survivors were picked up by the Portuguese steam merchant Sines. The 5,565 ton Keystone was carrying war material, including gasoline, aircraft, tanks and trucks and was headed for Algiers, Algeria.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy GAT-49, the Dutch steam merchant Ceres was torpedoed and sunk by the U-68, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Albert Lauzemis, about 200 miles northwest of Curaçao off the Venezuelan coast in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 35 survivors were picked up by an escort vessel. The 2,680 ton Ceres was carrying general cargo and was headed for Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy GAT-49, the American steam tanker Cities Service Missouri was torpedoed and sunk by the U-68, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Albert Lauzemis, about 200 miles northwest of Curaçao off the Venezuelan coast in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 52 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Biddle (DD 151). The 7,506 ton Cities Service Missouri was carrying water ballast and was headed for Aruba.  
   
  Monday, March 15, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy UGS-6, the French steam merchant Wyoming was torpedoed and sunk by the U-524, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter von Steinaecker, in the mid Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 127 survived and were picked up by the destroyer USS Champlin (DD 601). The 8,062 ton Wyoming was carrying general cargo, including food, medical supplies, steel mats and was headed for Casablanca, Morocco.  
   
  Tuesday, March 16, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy UGS-6, the American steam merchant Benjamin Harrison was torpedoed and sunk by the U-172, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Carl Emmermann, in the mid Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 3 died and 69 survivors were picked up by the destroyer USS Rowan (DD 405). The 7,191 ton Benjamin Harrison was carrying food, machinery, ammunition, trucks and tanks and was headed for North Africa.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the Norwegian motor merchant Elin K. was torpedoed and sunk by the U-603, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Joachim Bertelsmann, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 40 survived and were picked up by the corvette HMS Pennywort (K 111). The 5,214 ton Elin K. was carrying wheat, manganese ore, and mail and was headed for Belfast Lough, Ireland.  
   
  Wednesday, March 17, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy SC-122, the British steam merchant Port Auckland was torpedoed and sunk by the U-305, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Rudolf Bahr, southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 8 died and 110 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Godetia (K 226). The 8,789 ton Port Auckland was carrying frozen produce, general cargo, and mail and was headed for Avonmouth, England.  
   
Sailing with Convoy SC-122, the British steam merchant Zouave was torpedoed and sunk by the U-305 southeast of Cape Farewell. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died and 30 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Godetia (K 226). The 4,256 ton Zouave was carrying iron ore and was headed for Middlesbrough, England.
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-122, the Dutch steam merchant Alderamin was torpedoed and sunk by the U-338, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Manfred Kinzel, southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 15 died and 49 survived. The 7,886 ton Alderamin was carrying oil seeds, rubber, and general cargo and was headed for Hull, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-122, the Panamanian steam merchant Granville was torpedoed and sunk by the U-338 southeast of Cape Farewell. Of the ship’s complement, 13 died and 34 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Lavender (K 60). The 4,071 ton Granville was carrying British and American military stores, mail, and an invasion barge as deck cargo.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-122, the British steam merchant King Gruffydd was torpedoed and sunk by the U-338 southeast of Cape Farewell. Of the ship’s complement, 24 died and 25 survivors were picked up by the British rescue ship Zamalek. The 5,072 ton King Gruffydd was carrying steel, tobacco, and high explosives and was headed for Hull, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SC-122, the British steam merchant Kingsbury was torpedoed and sunk by the U-338 southeast of Cape Farewell. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 44 survivors were picked up by the British rescue ship Zamalek. The 4,898 ton Kingsbury was carrying West African produce, including building timber, soya, and bauxite and was headed for London, England.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-122, the British steam merchant Fort Cedar Lake was torpedoed and sunk by the U-665, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Jürgen Haupt, southeast of Cape Farewell, Greenland in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 50 survived and were picked up by the British rescue ship Zamalek. The 7,134 ton Fort Cedar Lake was carrying general cargo and was headed for Belfast Lough, Ireland.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the British steam merchant Coracero was torpedoed and sunk by the U-384, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Achim von Rosenberg-Gruszcynski, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 5 died and 53 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Mansfield (G 76). The 7,252 ton Coracero was carrying refrigerated meat and mail and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the American steam merchant William Eustis was torpedoed and sunk by the U-435, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Siegfried Strelow, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 72 survived and were picked up by the destroyer HMS Volunteer (D 71). The 7,196 ton William Eustis was carrying sugar and food, including milk, eggs, and dried fruit and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the British whale factory ship Southern Princess was torpedoed and sunk by the U-600, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Bernhard Zurmühlen, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement and passengers, 6 died and 94 survivors were picked up by the British steam merchant Tekoa. The 12,156 ton Southern Princess was carrying heavy fuel oil and a deck cargo of 463 tons of locomotives and landing craft and was headed for Clyde, United Kingdom.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the Dutch steam merchant Terkoelei was torpedoed and sunk by the U-631, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Jürgen Krüger, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 36 died and 61 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Mansfield (G 76). The 5,158 ton Terkoelei was carrying zinc, wheat, and mail and was headed for Swansea, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the American steam merchant James Oglethorpe was torpedoed and sunk by the U-758, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Helmut Manseck, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 44 died and 30 survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Pennywort (K 111). The 7,176 ton James Oglethorpe was carrying steel, cotton, food and a deck cargo of aircraft, tractors and trucks and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the Dutch steam merchant Zaanland was torpedoed and sunk by the U-758 in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 53 survived and were picked up by the escorts. The 6,813 ton Zaanland was carrying refrigerated meat, wheat, and zinc and was headed for Avonmouth, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the American steam merchant Harry Luckenbach was torpedoed and sunk by the U-91, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinz Walkerling, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 80 died. The 6,366 ton Harry Luckenbach was carrying general cargo and was headed for the United Kingdom.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy HX-229, the American steam merchant Irénée Du Pont was torpedoed and sunk by the U-91 in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 14 died and 70 survivors were picked up by the Dutch steam merchant Tekoa and the destroyer HMS Mansfield (G 76). The 6,125 ton Irénée Du Pont was carrying general cargo, oil, and 11 medium bombers as deck cargo and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy HX-229, the British steam merchant Nariva was torpedoed and sunk by the U-91 in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 94 survived and were picked up by the corvette HMS Anemone (K 48). The 8,714 ton Nariva was carrying refrigerated foodstuffs and was headed for Swansea, England.  
   
  Thursday, March 18, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the British motor merchant Canadian Star was torpedoed and sunk by the U-221, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Hartwig Trojer, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 34 died and 54 survivors were picked up by the corvettes HMS Anemone (K 48) and HMS Pennywort (K 111). The 8,293 ton Canadian Star was carrying refrigerated cargo, including meat, cheese, and butter and was headed for Liverpool, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy HX-229, the American steam merchant Walter Q. Gresham was torpedoed and sunk by the U-221 in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 28 died and 42 survivors were picked up by the corvettes HMS Anemone (K 48) and HMS Pennywort (K 111). The 7,191 ton Walter Q. Gresham was carrying general cargo, including powdered milk and sugar and was headed for Clyde, United Kingdom.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy UGS-6, the American steam merchant Molly Pitcher was torpedoed and sunk by the U-521, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Klaus Bargsten, about 500 miles west of Lisbon, Portugal in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 66 survivors were picked up by the destroyers USS Champlin (DD 601) and USS Rowan (DD 405) and the American steam merchant William Johnson. The 7,200 ton Molly Pitcher was carrying general cargo, including sugar, coffee, explosives, coal, tractors, trucks, ambulances and was headed for Casablanca, Morocco.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy SC-122, the British steam merchant Clarissa Radcliffe was torpedoed and sunk by the U-663, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Schmid, in the western Atlantic Ocean. All of the ship’s complement of 55 died. The 5,754 ton Clarissa Radcliffe was carrying iron ore and was headed for Barrow, England.  
   
  Friday, March 19, 1943  
  A straggler from Convoy SC-122, the Greek steam merchant Carras was torpedoed and sunk by the U-333, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Werner Schwaff, in the northern Atlantic Ocean after being damaged by the U-666. Of the ship’s complement, all 34 survived and were picked up by the British rescue ship Zamalek. The 5,234 ton Carras was carrying wheat and was headed for Belfast, Ireland.  
   
  Saturday, March 20, 1943  
  The Panamanian steam merchant Nortun was torpedoed and sunk by the U-516, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Gerhard Wiebe, off the coast of southern Africa in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 10 died and 37 survived. The 3,663 ton Nortun was carrying chrome ore, asbestos, lead and copper concentrates and was headed for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  
   
  The unescorted Dutch steam merchant Mariso was torpedoed and sunk by the U-518, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich-Wilhelm Wissmann, about 90 miles off Bahia, Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 2 died and 109 survived. The 7,659 ton Mariso was carrying general cargo and was headed for Alexandria, Egypt.  
   
  Thursday, March 25, 1943  
  The unescorted Swedish motor merchant Industria was torpedoed and sunk by the U-518, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Friedrich-Wilhelm Wissmann, off the coast of Brazil in the western Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 1 died and 25 survived. The 1,688 ton Industria was carrying general cargo and was headed for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  
   
  Sunday, March 28, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy RS-3, the British motor merchant Silverbeech was torpedoed and sunk by the U-159, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Helmut Witte, southeast of the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 59 died and 8 survivors were picked up by the British tug Empire Ace. The 5,319 ton Silverbeech was carrying general cargo, including ammunition and high explosives and was headed for Lagos, Nigeria.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy RS-3, the British steam merchant Lagosian was torpedoed and sunk by the U-167, commanded by Kurt Sturm, southeast of the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 11 died and 35 survivors were picked up by the British tug Empire Denis. The 5,449 ton Lagosian was carrying ballast and was headed for Takoradi, Ghana.  
   
  Monday, March 29, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy RS-3, the Belgian motor merchant Moanda was torpedoed and sunk by the U-172, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Carl Emmermann, about 80 miles northwest of Villa Cisneros, Western Sahara off the coast of western Africa in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 29 died and 27 survived. The 4,621 ton Moanda was carrying ballast and was headed for Takoradi, Ghana.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SL-126, the British steam merchant Nagara was torpedoed and sunk by the U-404, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto von Bülow, about 425 miles northwest of Cape Finisterre off the west coast Spain in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, all 97 survived and were picked up by the frigate HMS Wear (K 230). The 8,791 ton Nagara was carrying refrigerated meat and was headed for Cardiff, England.  
   
  A straggler from Convoy HX-230, the American steam merchant William Pierce Frye was torpedoed and sunk by the U-610, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Walter von Freyberg-Eisenberg-Allmendingen, in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 57 died and 7 survivors were picked up by the destroyer HMS Shikari (D 85). The 7,176 ton William Pierce Frye was carrying military stores, including explosives, wheat, and five landing craft as deck cargo and was headed for Barry, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SL-126, the British steam merchant Empire Whale was torpedoed and sunk by the U-662, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Heinz-Eberhard Müller, approximately 425 miles northwest of Cape Finisterre off the west coast Spain in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 47 died and 10 survivors were picked up by the frigate HMS Spey (K 246). The 6,159 ton Empire Whale was carrying iron ore and was headed for Tyne, England.  
   
  Sailing with Convoy SL-126, the British steam merchant Umaria was torpedoed and sunk by the U-662 approximately 425 miles northwest of Cape Finisterre. Of the ship’s complement, all 103 survived and were picked up by the frigate HMS Wear (K 230). The 6,852 ton Umaria was carrying general cargo, including manganese ore, rubber, tea, and copra and was headed for Manchester, England.  
   
  Tuesday, March 30, 1943  
  Sailing with Convoy SL-126, the British steam merchant Empire Bowman was torpedoed and sunk by the U-404, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto von Bülow, about 425 miles northwest of Cape Finisterre off the west coast Spain in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Of the ship’s complement, 4 died and 46 survivors were picked up by the frigate HMS Wear (K 230). The 7,031 ton Empire Bowman was carrying general cargo and manganese ore and was headed for Hull, England.  
   
  Axis Merchant Shipping Losses  
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  Other Battle of the Atlantic Events  
  xx.  
     
   
     
   
 

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