January 1945 events of the Battle of the Atlantic  
  Naval Action in the Atlantic Ocean  
  Tuesday, January 2, 1945  
  The minesweeping trawler HMS Hayburn Wyke (FY 139), commanded by Lt. Skipper F. Wilson, was torpedoed and sunk by a German Seehund midget submarine off Ostend, Belgium.  
   
  Saturday, January 6, 1945  
  The destroyer HMS Walpole (D 41), commanded by Lt. George C. Crowley, was heavily damaged by a mine off Flushing, the Netherlands. 2 of the crew were killed. She was taken back to Kent where she was declared a constructive total loss not worth repairing.  
   
  Tuesday, January 9, 1945  
  While escorting the convoy GC-107, the Free French patrol vessel L'Enjoue L´Enjoue (W 44) was hit by a Gnat torpedo from the U-870, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Hechler, and sank off Cape Spartel, Morocco.  
   
  Monday, January 15, 1945  
  The unescorted escort aircraft carrier HMS Thane (D 48), commanded by Captain E.R.G. Baker, was ferrying aircraft when she was torpedoed and damaged by the U-1172, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Jürgen Kuhlmann, in the Irish Sea. The Thane was towed to Greenock in the Firth of Clyde, southwest Scotland by the frigate HMS Loring (K 565) where she was examined and declared a constructive total loss.  
   
  Tuesday, January 16, 1945  
  The Soviet destroyer Dejatelnyj, commanded by Kptlt. K.A. Kravchenko, was torpedoed and sunk by the U-956, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Hans-Dieter Mohs, about 40 miles east of Cape Tereberski in the Kara Sea. According to Soviet sources the Dejatelnyj got a radar contact of a U-boat while escorting the convoy KB-1. The destroyer then unsuccessfully tried to ram the diving U-boat, dropped depth charges and as she turned for another attack a heavy explosion occurred at the stern which was blown away. All efforts to save the 1,190 ton ship proved fruitless and she sank after 50 minutes, taking the commander and 116 men with her. Only seven men were picked up by the Soviet destroyer Derzkij.  
   
  Saturday, January 20, 1945  
  The Soviet destroyer Razjarennyj was hit by a Gnat torpedo from the U-293, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Leonhard Klingspor, while escorting the convoy KP-1 to Liinahamari, Soviet Union. The destroyer was hunting the U-boat with the destroyer Rasumnyj when she was hit and lost a part of the stern. The crew managed to keep the ship afloat until it was taken in tow by the Soviet minesweeper T-117, and reached Liinahamari the next day. 39 crew members died in the incident.  
   
  Sunday, January 21, 1945  
  The destroyer HMS Vanoc (H 33), commanded by Lt. Commander Peter R. Ward, rammed the minesweeping trawler HMS Computator (FY 635) off Normandy, France. The HMS Computator sank and the HMS Vanoc was heavily damaged.  
   
  Friday, January 26, 1945  
  The HMS Manners (K 568), commanded by A/Cdr. John V. Waterhouse, was hit by one torpedo from the U-1051, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Heinrich von Holleben, some 20 miles from Skerries off the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea. The frigate broke in two after the hit. The stern sank with the loss of four officers and 39 ratings while 15 others were injured. Several escorts from the 4th and 5th Escort Group counterattacked after the U-1051 torpedoed the Manners. The U-1051 was located by the frigate HMS Bentinck (K 314) and attacked with depth charges, soon thereafter joined by the frigates HMS Aylmer (K 463) and HMS Calder (K 349). The U-boat was forced to surface, came under fire by the frigates, and sank after being rammed by the HMS Aylmer. All 47 of the U-1051’s crew died. The forepart of the Manners was towed into Barrow in Furness, England and was declared a total loss.  
   
  U-Boat Losses  
  Tuesday, January 16, 1945  
  The U-248, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Johann-Friedrich Loos, was sunk in the North Atlantic by depth charges from the destroyer escorts USS Hayter, USS Otter, USS Varian and USS Hubbard. 47 dead (all hands lost).  
  Wednesday, January 17, 1945  
  The U-2523 was sunk at the Blohm & Voss yard in Hamburg, by bombs. The wreck would later be broken up.  
   
  The U-2515 was sunk in Dock 111, Hamburg, by bombs while damaged sections from mining were being replaced. The wreck would later be broken up.  
   
  Sunday, January 21, 1945  
  The U-1199, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Rolf Nollmann, was sunk in the English Channel near the Scilly Isles by depth charges from the destroyer HMS Icarus (D 03), commanded by Lt. Commander David D. Bone, and the corvette HMS Mignonette (K 38), commanded by Lt. Harold H. Brown. Of the crew of 49 men only one survived.  
   
  Wednesday, January 24, 1945  
  The U-295 hit a mine in the Arctic Ocean and was damaged so badly that it had to return to base.  
   
  Saturday, January 27, 1945  
  The U-1172, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Jürgen Kuhlmann, was sunk in St. George’s Channel by depth charges from the frigates HMS Tyler (K 576), HMS Keats (K 482) and the HMS Bligh (K 467). All 52 of the crew of the U-1172 died.  
   
  Attacks on Allied and Neutral Merchant Ships  
  Thursday, January 4, 1945  
  Sailing with convoy SH-194, the Norwegian steam merchant Polarland was torpedoed and sunk by the U-1232, commanded by Kapitän zur See Kurt Dobratz, four miles off Halifax, Nova Scotia in the western Atlantic Ocean. The U-1232 also torpedoed but only damaged the Canadian motor tanker Nipiwan Park. Of the Polarland’s complement, 17 died and 5 survivors were picked up by the HMCS Kentville (J 312). The 1,591 ton Polarland was carrying flour spar and was heading for Philadelphia, United States.  
   
  Wednesday, January 10, 1945  
  Sailing in convoy KMS-76, the British steam merchant Blackheath was torpedoed and damaged by U-870, commanded by Korvettenkapitän Ernst Hechler, west of Gibraltar. She was set aground two miles south of Cape Spartel, Marocco, but broke in tow and was declared a total loss. Of the ship’s complement, all 35 survived and were picked up by the frigate HMS Ballinderry (K 255) and the patrol vessel HMS Kilbernie (Z 01). The 4,637 ton Blackheath was carrying military stores and was heading for Ancona, Italy.  
   
  Sunday, January 14, 1945  
  The U-1232, commanded by Kapitän zur See Kurt Dobratz, attacked the convoy BX-141 east of Halifax in the western Atlantic Ocean. The U-1232 sank the British motor tanker British Freedom and the British motor tanker Athelviking and badly damaged the American Liberty steam merchant Martin Van Buren. Of the British Freedom’s complement, 1 died and 56 survivors were picked up by the HMCS Gaspe (J 94). Of the Martin Van Buren’s complement, 3 died and 66 survivors were picked up by the HMCS Comox (J 64) and the HMCS Fundy (J 88). Of the Athelviking’s complement, 4 died and 47 survivors were picked up by the Canadian motor launch HMCS ML-102. The 6,985 ton British Freedom was carrying US Navy special fuel oil and was heading for the United Kingdom. The 7,176 ton Martin Van Buren was carrying provisions, tires, cigarettes, locomotives, and vehicles and was heading for Halifax. The 8,779 ton Athelviking was carrying molasses and 14 landing craft on deck and was heading for the United Kingdom. The U-1232 attempted to torpedo the frigate HMCS Ettrick (K 254), commanded by Lt. Commander Edward M. More. Later in the action the HMCS Ettrick, while conducting an attack, ran over the conning tower of the U-1232. The U-1232 was badly damaged and forced to depart for its home base.  
   
  Monday, January 15, 1945  
  The unescorted British motor tanker Maja was torpedoed and sunk by the U-1055, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Rudolf Meyer, southeast of Drogheda off the coast of eastern Ireland. Of the ship’s complement, 25 died and 40 survivors were picked up by the Belgian trawler Hendrik Conscience. The 8,181 ton Maja was carrying gas oil and motor spirits and was heading for Reykjavik.  
   
  The unescorted Norwegian motor tanker Spinanger was torpedoed and damaged by the U-1172, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Jürgen Kuhlmann, about 1 mile off Clyde Light Vessel in the Irish Sea. The explosion wrecked the engines, killed three men on watch below and badly injured four others. The damaged tanker was taken in tow by the Boom defense vessel HMS Barfield (Z 42) and arrived the next day in Port Bannatyne, Isle of Bute. She was later towed to Rothesay and returned to service after being repaired. The 7,429 ton Spinanger was carrying fuel oil and was heading for Greenock, Scotland.  
   
  Sunday, January 21, 1945  
  The Norwegian steam merchant Galatea was torpedoed and sunk by the U-1051, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Heinrich von Holleben, off Bardsey Island in the St. Georges Channel. Of the ship’s complement, 20 died and 1 survivor was picked up by the frigate HMS Tyler (K 576). The 1,152 ton Galatea was carrying ballast and was heading for Barry, South Wales.  
   
  Tuesday, January 23, 1945  
  The Norwegian steam merchant Vigsnes was torpedoed and sunk by the U-1172, commanded by Oberfähnrich zur See Jürgen Kuhlmann, off Isle of Anglesey in the Irish Sea. Of the ship’s complement, all 25 survived by using a lifeboat and made landfall about seven hours later at Lynas Point Cove near Anglesey. The 1,599 ton Vigsnes was carrying coal and was heading for Mersey, England.  
   
  Saturday, January 27, 1945  
  The U-825, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Gerhard Stoelkerr, torpedoed and damaged two merchant vessels of convoy HX-332 off Cardigan Bay after it formed two columns to enter the St. George´s Channel. The American Liberty steam merchant Ruben Dario, which suffered no casualties of its 73 member crew, managed to arrive in Liverpool the next day with its cargo of grain and a deck cargo of gliders. The Norwegian motor tanker Solør, which suffered 4 casualties of its 44 member crew, was taken in tow and beached at Oxwich Bay, Wales. She broke in two after the half of the cargo of oil and 17 gliders had been unloaded and was declared a total loss.  
   
  Axis Merchant Shipping Losses  
  Friday, January 12, 1945  
  The British heavy cruiser HMS Norfolk, commanded by Captain John G.Y. Loveband with Rear Admiral Rhoderick R. McGrigor aboard, and the light cruiser HMS Bellona, commanded by Captain C.F.W. Norris, escorted by the destroyers HMS Onslow, HMS Orwell, and the HMS Onslaught attacked a German convoy off Egersund, Norway. Two German merchants, the 8551 ton Bahia Camarones and the 4404 ton Charlotte, and the minelayer M 273 were sunk.  
   
  Other Battle of the Atlantic Events  
  Monday, January 8, 1945  
  The commander of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Vice Admiral Jonas H. Ingram, gave a press conference in which he warned there was a threat of missile attack and announced that a large force had been assembled to counter seaborne missile launchers.  
   
  Sunday, January 14, 1945  
  The corvette HMCS Trillium (K 172), while escorting the 47-ship Convoy ON-278 from Southend to New York City, collided with a coaster, which sank. There is no record of either the name of the vessel or loss of life in this incident. The HMCS Trillium required five weeks of repairs, afterward resuming mid-ocean service until the end of the war.  
     
   
     
   
 

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