Abridged Encyclopedia of World War 2  
  C to Czuma  
   
  Cabinet Information Board - The Cabinet Information Board was a Japanese executive agency created in December 940 which was responsible for coordinating propaganda and censorship within Japan and psychological warfare abroad. The board absorbed the publicity bureaus of every government department except the Imperial General Headquarters ( the Japanese equivalent of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff whose information office turned out separate and often conflicting  propaganda). The Board supervised film studios, the Domei News Agency, and NHK - the state broadcast network (which operated Radio Tokyo, the main organ for overseas propaganda). The board was responsible for censoring newspapers, magazines, books, and scholarly journals, Together with the home ministry’s thought police and the military police, it was responsible for suppressing rumors and opinions contrary to government policy. Some of its functions overlapped with those of the army and home ministry, so it never achieved the same efficiency as Germany’s propaganda system. It was successful in curbing public discussion and thus helped prevent the formation of resistance movements. The board was disbanded after the end of the war in December 1945.  
   
  Cabinet Planning Board - The Cabinet Planning Board was an executive agency in Japan. It was created in October 1937 to coordinate materials mobilization plans and administer foreign trade. While nearly every civilian ministry was represented on its staff, it was dominated by members of the naval and military affairs bureaus and virtually all private factories in Japan were nominally subject to direct government control. The board imposed controls, rules, and regulations on domestic industry under the National General Mobilization Law of 1938 and established policy companies for each important industrial segment. Corporate and financial leaders immediately attacked the these companies because they found them too restrictive. The army, on the other hand, thought they were too flexible and pressed in 1940 to raise corporate profit taxes. With planners bickering and production lagging, the board soon announced a “new economic structure” and, by September 1941, began to set up industrial control associations in place of the ineffective policy companies. This scheme did not work any better and the board was disbanded in September 1943. The army finally took direct control of economic planning in November 1943, when a new munitions ministry was established to replace the board.  
   
  Cadorna, Jr., Raffaele - (1889-1973) Cadorna was an Italian general who fought during both the First World War and World War 2. Cardona was the son of Marshal Luigi Cardona who was the chief of the Italian general staff during the First World War. During the early years of World War II, he took part in some actions against France, and was then named commander of the school of cavalry in Pinerolo. Cardona escaped from Rome in September 1943 after the Armistice of Italy was signed and the German occupied the Italian capitol. On August 11, 1944 Cardona parachuted into Val Cavallina near Bergamo in northern Italy and served as chief of the Resistance and the central government of Italy. He became supreme commander of the armed partisans north of the Gothic Line after the November 1944 compromise. In April 1945, he was a member of the partisan delegation that tried to reach an agreement with Mussolini in the archbishop's palace of Milan. On June 15, 1945, he was awarded the Patriot's Certificate, a decoration reserved to those who had contributed to the Italian resistance movement. He was also awarded the Legion of Merit - Degree of Commander.  
   
  Cairo Conference - The Cairo Conference (codenamed Sextant) took place November 22 - 26, 1943 in Cairo, Egypt. The conference addressed the Allied position against Japan and made decisions about postwar Asia. The meeting was attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China. Soviet leader Josef Stalin refused to attend the conference on the grounds that since Chiang was attending, it would cause a provocation between the Soviet Union and Japan. The conference culminated in the Cairo Declaration November 27, 1943 which stated the Allies' intentions to continue deploying military force until Japan's unconditional surrender, that Japan be stripped of all the islands in the Pacific which she has seized or occupied since the beginning of the First World War and that Manchuria, Formosa, and the Pescadores be returned to China, and that Korea should become independent.  
   
  Calinescu, Armand - (1893-1939) Calinescu was a Romanian economist and politician who served as Prime Minister between March 1939 and the time of his death. Calinescu was assassinated by gunmen in the street in Bucharest by members of the Iron Guard, a fascist organization with German approval and assistance.  
   
  Callaghan Daniel J. - (1890-1942) Callaghan was an American naval officer who rose to the rank of Rear Admiral during the war. In November, as a task group commander he commanded a U.S. task force in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Callaghan was on the bridge of the USS San Francisco when incoming enemy fire killed him and most of the command crew on November 13, 1942. Callaghan was one of only two admirals killed in a surface engagement during the war.  
   
  Calvert, James M. - (1913-1998) Calvert was a British soldier involved in special operations in Burma. He participated in both Chindit operations and was instrumental in popularizing the unorthodox ideas of General Orde Wingate. Calvert frequently led risky attacks from the front, a practice that earned him the nickname "Mad Mike." In 1945 he was placed in charge of the Special Air Service.  
   
  CAM Ships - CAM Ships were British merchant ships used in convoys as an emergency stop-gap until sufficient escort carriers became available. CAM is an acronym for catapult aircraft merchantman. A CAM ship was equipped with a rocket-propelled catapult launching a single Hawker Hurricane, dubbed a "Hurricat" or "Catafighter". CAM ships continued to carry their normal cargoes after conversion.  
   
  Camp O'Donnell - Camp O'Donnell was a facility of the United States Army Air Force in Capas, Tarlac, Philippine Islands. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, Camp O'Donnell was the final stop of the Bataan Death March and was used as an internment camp for American and Filipino prisoners of war. About 2,200 Americans and 27,000 Filipinos died at Camp O'Donnell.  
   
  Canaris, Wilhelm F. - (1887-1945) Canaris was a German admiral, head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944 and member of the German Resistance.  
   
  Carol II - (1893-1953) Carol II reigned as King of Romania from June 8, 1930 until September 6, 1940. Carol sought to build up his own personality cult to counter the growing influence of the fascist Iron Guard. He was forced under first Soviet and subsequently Hungarian, Bulgarian, and German pressure to surrender parts of his kingdom to foreign rule. He was outmaneuvered at last by the pro-German administration of Marshal Ion Antonescu and abdicated in favour of Michael.  
   
  Carpatho-Ukraine - Carpatho-Ukraine was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939 when it declared itself an independent republic. Carpatho-Ukraine was immediately occupied by Hungary and would remain under Hungarian control until the Nazi occupation of Hungary in 1944. After the war a treaty was signed between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding the region officially to the Soviet Union.  
   
  Casablanca Conference - The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was in Casablanca, Morocco from January 14 to 24, 1943. Its purpose was to plan the European strategy of the Allies. Attending the conference was American president Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and many French representatives. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had been invited but declined to attend. The conference resulted in decisions concerning Allied aid to the Soviet Union, the invasion of Sicily and Italy, and the recognition of joint leadership of the Free French by de Gaulle and Giraud. The Allied leaders also issued the Casablanca Declaration calling for the unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers.  
   
  Castellano, Giuseppe - (1893-1977) Castellano was an Italian military officer who rose to the rank of General during the war. Castellano is best known as the general who negotiated the Armistice between Italy and the Allies on September 8, 1943. Castellano was involved in the invasion of Yugoslavia for which he received a promotion to General. He later served in the General Staff and as personal aide of General Vittorio Ambrosio of the High Command. Castellano In 1941, he was promoted to General during the Invasion of Yugoslavia, and was at that time, the youngest general in Italy. In 1942 he was called to the General Staff and the following year, to the High Command and collaborated with General Vittorio Ambrosio as personal aide of General Ambrosio. Castellano was involved deposing Italian dictator Benito Mussolini after the fall of Sicily in 1943.  
   
  Catroux, Georges - (1877-1969) Catroux was an American naval officer who rose to the rank of Général d'Armée. From 1941 to 1943, Catroux was the commander in chief of the Free French forces. De Gaulle appointed him High Commissioner to the Levant in 1941 and he took control of Syria for the Free French after the defeat of Vichy General Henri Dentz and the Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre. Shortly after taking up the post, Catroux, in the name of the Free French movement, recognized the independence of Syria. De Gaulle subsequently appointed him Governor General of Algeria in 1943-44.  
   
  Cavallero, Ugo - (1880-1943) Cavallero was an Italian military commander before and during World War 2I. Cavallero became Commander of the combined Italian forces in Italian East Africa in 1938. After Italy entered World War 2 in June 1940, Cavallero was made the Commander-in-Chief of the Italian Army Group in Albania. In October he was the commander of the Italian forces that invaded Greece,. In December 1940, he replaced Pietro Badoglio as the Chief of the Italian Supreme Command. Under Cavallero’s leadership, Italy’s military forces performed poorly during the war. Nonetheless, he was promoted to Marshal of Italy in 1942. In July 1943, after several serious Italian setbacks Cavallero was dismissed as Chief of the Supreme Command. Cavallero committed suicide on September 13, 1943.  
   
  Channel Dash - The Channel Dash is the popular name for when the battle cruisers, SMS Scharnhorst and SMS Gneisenau, the heavy cruiser SMS Prinz Eugen, and a number of other smaller vessels transited the English Channel leaving their base at Brest, France for ports in Germany. The German ships were protected by a constant umbrella of Luftwaffe fighters and there was minimal damage from British naval forces but both battle cruisers were damaged by mines, the SMS Schnarhorst seriously. Vulnerability to RAF bombing in Brest had prompted German Chancellor Adolf Hitler to order these ships to their new bases.  
   
  Chain Home - Chain Home was the codename for the ring of coastal Early Warning radar stations built by the British before and during the World War 2. The system otherwise known as AMES Type 1 (Air Ministry Experimental Station) consisted of radar fixed on top of a radio tower mast, called a 'station' to provide long-range detection of aircraft. This system had shortcomings in not being able to detect aircraft at lower altitudes and thus was used in conjunction with the Chain Home Low system, or AMES Type 2 which could detect aircraft flying at minimum altitude level of 500 feet.  
   
  Chain Home Low - Chain Home Lowwas the code name of a British radar early warning system, detecting enemy aircraft movement at lower altitudes than the fixed Chain Home system which was operated by the RAF during World War 2. Officially, its designation name was AMES Type 2 (Air Ministry Experimental Station) and used higher power, operating at a shorter wavelength of 1.5 meters than Chain Home. Chain Home Low was able to detect lower flying aircraft than Chain Home. Chain Home Low systems were mobile and could be strategically moved based on enemy movement, giving the RAF a wider options.  
   
  Chamberlain, Arthur Neville - (1869-1940) Chamberlain was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. Chamberlain is best known for his appeasement foreign policy, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Nazi Germany. When Adolf Hitler continued his aggression, Britain declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of the Second World War. Chamberlain resigned the premiership on May 10, 1940, after the failed Allied incursion into Norway as he believed a government supported by all parties was essential, and the Labour and Liberal parties would not join a government headed by him. He was succeeded by Winston Churchill but remained very well regarded in Parliament, especially among Conservatives. Before ill health forced him to resign, he was an important member of Churchill's War Cabinet, heading it in the new premier's absence. Chamberlain died of cancer six months after leaving the premiership.  
   
  Chennault, Claire L. (1893-1958) Chennault was an American military officer who rose to the rank of Major General during the war. Chennault was an advocate of "pursuit" or fight-interceptor aircraft during the 1930s when the U.S. Army Air Corps was focused primarily on high-altitude bombardment. Chennault retired in 1937 and went to work as an aviation trainer and adviser in China. He commanded the volunteer "Flying Tigers" before the outbreak of U.S.-Japanese hostilities and the uniformed units that replaced it in 1942.  
   
  Chiang Kai-shek - (1887-1975) Chiang was a political and military leader of China. Chiang was an influential member of the Nationalist Party, the Kuomintang (KMT), and was a close ally of Sun Yat-sen who took Sun's place as leader when Sun died in 1925. Chiang led China in the Second Sino-Japanese War, during which the Nationalist government's power severely weakened, but his prominence grew. Chiang Kai-shek was socially conservative, promoting traditional Chinese culture in the New Life Movement, and economically, he used heavy government control and intervention, at times against private enterprises.  
   
  Chindits - Chindits were a specially trained "long range penetration group" designed to operate behind enemy lines in northern Burma and would be supplied only by air drops. Their mission was to disrupt Japanese communications and tactical deployments in order to open more opportunities for "conventional" offensives. Their name derives from a corrupted form of the Burmese mythical beast Chinthé or Chinthay, statues which guarded Buddhist temples.  
   
  Ching-wei, Wang - (1883-1944) Ching-wei was a Chinese politician. initially known as a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT), but later became increasingly anti-Communist after his efforts to collaborate with the Chinese Communist Party ended in failure. On March 30, 1940, Wang became the head of state of what came to be known as the Wang Ching-wei regime based in Nanjing, serving as the President of the Executive Yuan and Chairman of the National Government. In November 1940, Wang's government signed the "Sino-Japanese Treaty" with the Japanese. For his role in the Pacific War, Wang has been considered a traitor by most post-World War 2 Chinese historians in both Taiwan and Mainland China and his name has become a synonymous for "traitor" or "treason" in mainland China and Taiwan.  
   
  Chodacki, Marian S. (1898-1975) Chodacki was Polish Army officer, a  diplomat, and the last Polish Commissioner General of the Republic in the Free City of Danzig.  
   
  Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer - (1874-1965) Churchill was a British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the great wartime leaders.  
   
  Ciano, Gian Galeazzo - (1903-1944) Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari, was the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs during the mid and late 1930s and the early years of World War 2 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law. Ciano was executed by a Fascist firing squad along with others who had voted for Mussolini's ousting.  
   
  Clark, Mark W. - (1896-1984) Clark was an American military officer who rose to the rank of General during the war. Clark participated in Operation Torch (the invasion of French North Africa) and the campaign in Italy and is known for his triumphal entry into Rome in 1944, the first major Axis city to fall.  
   
  Conant, James B. - (1893-1978) Conant was a chemist and President of Harvard University. Between 1941 and 1946, he also served as chairman of the National Defense Research Committee. From that position he played a key role in the Manhattan Project which developed the first nuclear weapons.  
   
  Coulondre, Robert - (1885-1959) Coulondre was a French diplomat who was the ambassador of France in Moscow from 1936 to 1938 and the the ambassador of France in Berlin from 1938 to 1939. Coulondre gave the Germans the ultimatum of the French Government in conjunction with the German attack on Poland.  
   
  Crace, John G. - (1887-1968) Crace was an Australian naval officer who rose to the rank of Vice Admiral. After war with Japan broke out, Crace was appointed commander of the Allied Naval Squadron, ANZAC Force. During the Battle of the Coral Sea, Crace’s forces narrowly escaped a Japanese air raid while patrolling south of New Guinea. In 1942 he was assigned the command of the Chatham Dockyard in Great Britain.  
   
  Cripps, Richard S. - (1889-1952) Cripps was a British Labour politician who served in a number of positions in the wartime coalition. In 1940 Churchill appointed Cripps Ambassador to the Soviet Union. In 1942 when it was rumored that Cripps might unseat Churchill as Prime Minister, Churchill sent Cripps to India to negotiate an agreement with the nationalist leaders Gandhi and Jinnah to keep India loyal to the British in exchange for a promise of full self-government after the war. Later in 1942 Cripps stepped down from being Leader of the House of Commons and was appointed Minister of Aircraft Production.  
   
  Cunningham, Alan G. - (1887-1983) Cunningham was a British military officer who rose to the rank of Lt. General during the war. Cunningham was noted for victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign of 1940 and 1941 in a swift action which resulted in the taking of 50,000 prisoners at the loss of only 500 men. Cunningham was appointed to command the newly-formed Eighth Army in North Africa in August 1941 with the task to lead the Libyan Desert offensive which began in November. Early losses led Cunningham to recommend the offensive be curtailed. His advice was not accepted Cunningham was relieved of command. He returned to Britain to serve the remainder of the war as Commandant of the Staff College, Camberley (1942) and General Officer C-in-C in Northern Ireland (1943) and Eastern Command (1944). Cunningham was the brother of Admiral Andrew B. Cunningham.  
   
  Cunningham, Andrew B. - (1883-1963) Cunningham was a British naval officer who rose to the rank of First Sea Lord during the war. In the Second World War, Cunningham was Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet and led British naval forces to victory in several critical Mediterranean naval battles includeing the attack on Taranto in 1940, the first completely all-aircraft naval attack in history, and the Battle of Cape Matapan in 1941. Cunningham controlled the defense of the Mediterranean supply lines through Alexandria, Gibraltar, and Malta. Cunningham also directed naval support for the various major allied landings in the Western Mediterranean. In 1943 Cunningham was promoted to First Sea Lord. Cunningham was the brother of Lt. General Alan G. Cunningham.  
   
  Czuma, Walerian - (1890-1962) Czuma was a Polish general and military commander. He is notable as the commander of the defense of Warsaw during the siege by the Germans of that city in September 1939.  
     
   
     
   
 

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