Abridged Encyclopedia of World War 2  
  E to Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo  
   
  Eboue, Felix A. - (1884-1944) Eboue was a French Guianan-born colonial administrator and Free French leader. He was the first black French man appointed to high post in the French colonies, when appointed as Governor of Guadeloupe in 1936. As governor of French Equatorial Africa (Chad) during most of World War 2, he helped build support for the Free French in 1940. Eboue advised General Charles de Gaulle to encourage participation by the native population in the administration of the French colonies, a policy that was confirmed by the Brazzaville Conference of January 30, 1944. In 1944 he was the first black to have his ashes placed at the Pantheon in Paris after his death.  
   
  Eden, R. Anthony - (1897-1977) Eden was a British Conservative politician who became Minister for  the League of Nations in 1934 for Stanley Baldwin’s government. Eden then was appointed Foreign Minister in 1935. Eden resigned this position in 1938 because of his growing dissatisfaction with the appeasement policy of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. In 1940 he was appointed Secretary of State for War. by Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill appointed Eden, In November 1940 he once again became Foreign Minister - and Churchill’s designated successor - a post he held until July 1945 when Churchill was defeated in the polls by Clement R. Attlee. Eden would later become Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1955 to 1957.  
   
  EDES - EDES was the Venizelist-oriented National Republican Greek League resistance organization led by a former army officer, Colonel Napoleon Zervas, with exiled republican General Nikolaos Plastiras as its nominal head.  
   
  Edison, Charles - (1890-1969) Edison was a son of Thomas Edison, a businessman, an Assistant U.S. Secretary of the Navy and then U.S. Secretary of the Navy from January 2, 1940 to June 24,1940. He then served as the 42nd Governor of New Jersey.  
   
  Edson, Merritt A. - (1897-1955), Edson, known as "Red Mike" for his red beard that he wore during his tour in Nicaragua in the late 1920s, was an American military officer who rose to the rank of Brigadier General during the war. As a Colonel, Edson led a battalion of Marine Raiders that captured Tulagi in August, 1942 at the outset of the Guadalcanal Campaign. The battle he is best known for was the defense of Lunga Ridge on Guadalcanal September 13-14, 1942. The 800 men of his Raider Battalion, with two companies of the 1st Parachute Battalion attached, withstood the repeated assaults of more than 2,500 Japanese. Edson was then placed in command of the 5th Marine Regiment and continued the fight against the Japanese until his regiment was withdrawn in November 1942. Edson received promotions throughout the war and after Guadalcanal participated in the invasion of Tarawa and in the capture of Saipan and Tinian.  
   
  Edward VIII - (1894-1972) Edward VIII, later the Duke of Windsor, was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth, and Emperor of India, from January20  to December 11, 1936. Only months into his reign, Edward VIII caused a constitutional crisis by proposing marriage to the American socialite Wallis Simpson, who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. Rather than give up Mrs. Simpson, Edward chose to abdicate. He was succeeded by his younger brother Albert, who chose the regnal name George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward was one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British and Commonwealth history.  After his abdication, he was created Duke of Windsor. He married Wallis Simpson in France on 3 June 1937, after her second divorce became final. Later that year, the couple toured Nazi Germany. During the World War 2, he was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France but, after private accusations that he held pro-Nazi sympathies, moved to the Bahamas after his appointment as Governor. After the war, he was never given another official appointment and spent the remainder of his life in retirement in France.  
   
  Eichelberger, Robert L. - (1886-1961) Eichelberger was an American military officer who rose to the rank of Lt. General during the war. Eichelberger led the Australian-US Advanced New Guinea Force to victory over the Japanese at Buna, in early 1943. In 1944 Eichelberger had notable victories at Hollandia and Biak, in Dutch New Guinea. In 1945 he was appointed Commanding General of the newly formed Eighth Army and he led the invasion of the Philippines clearing the islands of Mindoro, Marinduque, Panay, Negros, Cebu and Bohol.  
   
  Eichmann, Adolf O. - (1906-1962]) Eichmann was a German Nazi and SS-Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust. Because of his organizational talents and ideological reliability, Eichmann was charged by Reinhard Heydrich with the task of facilitating and managing the logistics of mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in German-occupied Eastern Europe. After the war, he fled to Argentina and lived there under a false identity until he was captured by Mossad operatives and taken to Israel to face trial in an Israeli court. He was found guilty and executed by hanging in 1962 and his ashes thrown into the sea. He is the only person to have been executed in Israel on conviction by a civilian court.  
   
  Einstein, Albert - (1879-1955) Einstein was a German émigré and physicist theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity. In the summer of 1939 Einstein was persuaded to lend his prestige by writing a letter, with Leo Szilard, to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in order to alert him of the possibility that Nazi Germany might be developing an atomic bomb. The effect of this letter led to the establishment of the Manhattan Project which developed the atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan.  
   
  Eisenhower, Dwight D. - (1890-1969) Eisenhower was an American military officer who rose to the rank of five-star General.  At the beginning of World War 2 Eisenhower was assigned to the General Staff in Washington, where he served until June 1942 with responsibility for creating the major war plans to defeat Japan and Germany. In June 1942 he was appointed Commanding General, European Theater of Operations based in London. Eisenhower had responsibility for planning and supervising the operations in North Africa in 1942-1943 and operations in France and Germany in 1944-1945. After the war he 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961.  
   
  El Alamein - El Alamein is an Egyptian coastal town on the Mediterranean Sea coast of Egyp approximately 65 miles west of Alexandria. The area was the site of two pivotal battles during 1942. The first occurred in July where the advance of Axis troops on Alexandria was blunted by the Allies, when the German Panzers tried to outflank the allied position. The second battle occurred in late October and November Allied forces broke the Axis line and forced them all the way back to Tunisia.  
   
  ELAS - ELAS or the Greek People's Liberation Army was the military arm of the left-wing National Liberation Front (EAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance until February 1945.  
   
  Elias, Alois - (1890-1942) Elias was a Czechoslovak general and politician. He served as Prime Minister of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia from April 27, 1939 to September 28, 1941. During his tenure in office he gave support to the underground resistance to the Nazi occupiers. On September 27, 1941, a week after the appointment of Reinhard Heydrich as the new Reich Protector, Elias was arrested, put on trial and sentenced to death. After Heydrich was assassinated nearly a year later Eliáš was finally executed as a part of the wide German reprisals for Heydrich's death.  
   
  Elizabeth - (1900-2002) Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon was the Queen consort of King George VI from 1936 until her husband's death in 1952, after which she was known as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, to avoid confusion with her daughter, Queen Elizabeth II. After war broke out in September 1939, George VI and his wife resolved to stay in London, despite German bombing raids. Throughout the war, the King and Queen provided morale-boosting visits throughout the United Kingdom, visiting bomb sites and munitions factories, and (in the King's case) visiting military forces abroad. Their high public profile and apparently indefatigable determination secured their place as symbols of national resistance.  
   
  Elser, J. Georg - (1903-1945) Elser was a German opponent of Nazism. He is most remembered for his unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler using a bomb at a Munich beer hall on November 8, 1939.  
   
  Enigma - The Enigma machine is any of a family of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines used for the encryption and decryption of secret messages. Enigma was invented by German engineer Arthur Scherbius at the end of World War I. and is most known as the principal device used by the Germans in World War 2.  
   
  Esau, Abraham - (1884-1955) Esau was a German physicist who from 1937 was head of the physics section of the newly created Reich Research Council (RFR.) From 1939, he was a professor at the University of Berlin and president of the Reich Physical and Technical Institute. From his position in the RFR, he initiated the first meeting of the Uranium Club in early 1939, the precursor to the Army Ordnance Office (HWA) German nuclear energy project. When the HWA gave control of the project to the RFR in 1942, Esau was in control of the project. From 1944 Esau also controlled the high-frequency engineering and radar working group.  
   
  Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo - The Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo (The National Liberation Front) was the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War 2. Its main driving force was the Communist Party of Greece, but its membership included several other leftist and republican groups.  
     
   
     
   
 

The objective of WW2Timelines.com is to provide a day by day account of the events that lead up to and were part of the greatest conflict known to mankind. There are accounts for the activities of each particular day and timelines for subjects and personalities. It is the of this website intent to provide an unbiased account of the war. Analysis, effects caused by an event, or prior or subsequent pertinent events are presented separately and indicated as text that is italicized.

 
   
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