Abridged Encyclopedia of World War 2  
  H to Huntziger  
   
  Haakon VII - (1872-1957) King Haakon of Norway was an uncle of George VI of England. King Haakon, the Royal Family, and the Norwegian Government were evacuated from Tromsø on June 7 to Great Britain following the invasion of his country by the Germans. During the war he encouraged Norwegian resistance and remained highly popular with his people. After the end of the war, Haakon and the Norwegian Royal Family returned to Norway to cheering crowds in Oslo on June 7, 1945, exactly five years after they had been evacuated from Tromsø.  
   
  Hacha, Emil - (1872-1945) Hacha was the third President of Czecho-Slovakia after the Treaty of Munich from 1938 to 1939. Hacha was summoned by Hitler to Berchtesgaden on March 14, 1939 and intimidated into allowing German troops to enter his country. After the occupation of the remnants of Czechoslovakia in 1939 he retained his office as President but was forced to swear an oath to Hitler. Hacha served as President of the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia until Prague was liberated by the Red Army in May of 1945. Hacha was arrested by the Soviets and transferred immediately to a prison hospital where he died under mysterious circumstances.  
   
  Hahn, Otto - (1879-1968) Hahn was a German chemist and Nobel laureate who pioneered the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as "the father of nuclear chemistry" and a "founder of the atomic age." Hahn was also a courageous opponent of Jewish persecution by the Nazis.  
   
  Halder, Franz - (1884-1972) Halder was a German military officer who rose to the rank of Colonel General. Halder was the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September, 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with German Chancellor Adolf Hitler.  
   
  Haile Selassie - (1892-1975) In 1932 Haile Selassie was crowned Emperor of Ethiopia. When Italian troops invaded Ethiopia in 1935-36, he personally led the nation's forces against the Italians. He fled to England in 1936 and returned to Ethiopia five years later to regain his throne. Although he introduced certain political and social reforms, including the abolition of slavery in 1942, he was overthrown in a coup d'état in 1974.  
   
  Halder, Franz - (1884-1972) Halder was a German military officer who rose to the rank of Colonel General and  succeeded Ludwig Beck as head of the General Staff of the land armies shortly after the Munich Pact in 1938. An enemy of Hitler's policy of aggression, he planned to unseat the Hitler when Chamberlain announced his visit to Berlin but stopped the coup after the Munich Pact was reached. Halder was directly responsible for the success of the Wehrmacht in 1939-1941. Deprived of his command in September 1942, he was arrested after the assassination attempt of July 20, 1944 on Hitler's life, but he was liberated by the Americans in April 1945. In 1949 his book Hitler als Feldherr ("Hitler as Field Commander") was published in Munich.  
   
  Halifax, Lord - (1881-1959) Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as The Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944. Halifax was one of the most senior British Conservative politicians of the 1930s, during which he held several senior ministerial posts, most notably as Foreign Secretary from 1938 to 1940. As such he is often regarded as one of the architects of the policy of appeasement prior to World War II. During the war, he served as British Ambassador in Washington.  
   
  Halsey, Jr., William F. - (1882-1959) Halsey (commonly referred to as "Bill" or "Bull" Halsey) was an American naval officer who rose to the rank of five-star Sdmiral. He commanded the South Pacific Area during the early stages of the Pacific War against Japan and later commanded the Third Fleet through the duration of hostilities.  
   
  Hambro, Sir Charles - (1897-1963) Hambro served as executive head of the Special Operations Executive in 1942-43. As chief of the British raw materials mission in the United States, he arranged for the exchange of information on the making of the atomic bomb.  
   
  Hankey, Sir Maurice (1877-1963) Hankey served as secretary of the Committee of Imperial Defense from 1912 to 1938. In 1939-40 he was a British cabinet minister without portfolio and a member of the War Cabinet.  
   
  von Hanneken, Hermann - (1890-1981) von Hanneken was a German military officer who rose to the rank of Lt. General. At the outbreak of the war Hanneken was in charge of iron and steel production. In 1942 he took over the duties of commander of the German forces in Denmark. He was responsible for defending the invasion and took a tougher line against the Danish resistance movement than his predecessor. In January 1945 he was released from his command and was accused of corruption by the German National-martial and sentenced to 8 years imprisonment. He was pardoned by Hitler and demoted to Major and sent to the front. At the end of the war he became an American prisoner and was extradited to Denmark. In 1948 he was sentenced to 8 years imprisonment but was acquitted in 1949 and expelled from Denmark.  
   
  Hansson, Per A. - (1885-1946) Hansson was a Swedish politician, chairman of the Social Democrats from 1925 and two-time Prime Minister in four governments between 1932 and 1946, governing all that period except for a short-lived crisis in the summer of 1936. During World War 2, in which Sweden maintained a policy of neutrality, he presided over a government of unity that included all major parties in the Swedish Parliament.  
   
  Hara, Chuichi - (1889-1964) Hara was a Japanese naval officer who rose to the rank of during the war. During the Pacific War, he was CINC of the IJN 5th Carrier Division for the attack on Pearl Harbor, with the new aircraft carriers Zuikaku and Shōkaku. At the Battle of Coral Sea, his IJN 5th Carrier Division suffered a considerable damage after which Hara was reassigned to command the IJN 8th Cruiser Division during the Solomon Islands campaign, including the Battle of the Eastern Solomons and the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. After Operation Hailstone, the attack on Truk, Hara replaced Vice Admiral Masami Kobayashi as CINC, IJN 4th Fleet, commanding the navy base at Truk. He held this post until the surrender of Japan.  
   
  Harding, Sir John (later Lord) (1896-1989) Harding was a British military officer who rose to the rank of Major General during the war.  Harding served in various capacities with the British Army in the Middle East until he returned to the United Kingdom in November 1943 to take command of VIII Corps. He was posted to Italy in January 1944 to become Chief of Staff to General Sir Harold Alexander commanding 15th Army Group.  
   
  Harriman, W. Averell - (1891-1986) Harriman, (William) Averell (1891-1986) Harriman was a Democratic Party politician, businessman, and diplomat. In 1941 Harriman went to London as Roosevelt's special envoy to arrange the land-lease program with the British. He accompanied Lord Beaverbrook to Moscow to discuss military aid for the Soviets. He served as ambassador to the USSR from 1943 to 1946 and attended all the Allied conferences. As ambassador he gained the respect of Stalin, but toward the end of the war he advised Roosevelt and later Truman to stand firm against Soviet domination of Eastern Europe. Harriman advocated the use of economics stations, such as cutbacks in a as a means of restraining the Soviets.  
   
  Harris, Arthur T. - (1892-1984) Harris was a British military officer who rose to the rank of Air Chief Marshal. Harris was known as "Bomber" Harris to the press and public and was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command. In 1942 the Cabinet agreed to the "area bombing" of German cities. Harris was tasked with implementing Churchill's policy and supported the development of tactics and technology to perform the task more effectively. Harris assisted British Chief of the Air Staff Marshal of the Royal Air Force Charles Portal in carrying out the United Kingdom's most devastating attacks against the German infrastructure and population. Harris' preference for area bombing over precision targeting in the last year of the war remains controversial, partly because by this time many senior Allied air commanders thought it less effective and partly for the large number of civilian casualties and destruction this strategy caused in Continental Europe.  
   
  Hart, Thomas C. - (1877-1971) Hart was an American Navy officer who rose to the rank of Admiral. Hart became the Commander-in-Chief, Asiatic Fleet in July of 1939. Prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor For he prepared the small Asiatic Fleet for war with Japan. He reduced the presence of his fleet in Chinese waters and concentrated it in the Philippines. He also successfully badgered Washington for reinforcements in the way of patrol planes and fleet submarines. After the attack on Pearl Harbor and the assaults on British and Dutch possessions and the Philippines in the Pacific Hart proclaimed unrestricted submarine warfare against Japan. Hart was given command of ABDA (American-British-Dutch-Australian) naval forces and directed this part of the Allied defense into February of 1942 when he was replaced, for political reasons, by Admiral Helfrich of the Dutch Navy. Hart returned to the United States in March of 1942 and was transferred to the retired list in July 1942 with the rank of Admiral. Hart nevertheless continued on active duty with the General Board through 1944.  
   
  Harteck, Paul - (1902-1985) Harteck was a German physical chemist whose focus was on the use of heavy water as a neutron moderator and nuclear enrichment experiments. He was arrested by the allied British and American Armed Forces and incarcerated at Farm Hall for six months in 1945 under Operation Epsilon.  
   
  Hata, Shunroku - (1879-1962), Hata was Japanese Army officer who rose to the rank of Field Marshal during World War 2. Hata became the commanding general of the Central China Expeditionary Army in February of 1938. Hata became Senior Aide-de-Camp to Emperor Hirohito in May of 1939. Hata served as Minister of War from August of 1939 to July of 1940 during the terms of Prime Minister Nobuyuki Abe and Mitsumasa Yonai. In July of 1940, Hata had a pivotal role in bringing down the Yonai cabinet by resigning post as Minister of War. Hata returned to China as commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army in March 1941. He was the main commander at the time of Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, during which around 250,000 Chinese civilians were killed, and the Changjiao Massacre. Hata was charged with war crimes and in 1948 was sentenced to life imprisonment under the charges of: “Conspiracy, waging aggressive war, disregarding his duty to prevent atrocities”. He was paroled in 1955.  
   
  Hatay, The Republic of - The Republic of Hatay, was a transitional political entity that formally existed from September 7, 1938 to June 29, 1939 in the northern region of the French Mandate of Syria. Under a Franco-Turkish pact, the French gave up all claims to the Republic of Hatay and the territory was annexed by the Turkey on June 29, 1939, and transformed into the Hatay Province. The act of the French giving up Hatay was a factor in Turkey staying out of World War 2.  
   
  Hausser, Paul - (1880-1972) Hausser was a German military officer who rose to the rank of Colonel General. Hausser achieved the rank of lieutenant-general in the inter-war Reichswehr. After retirement from the regular Army he became the "father" (and earned the nickname “Papa”) of the Waffen-SS and became one of its most eminent leaders. Hausser commanded troops in both the Eastern and Western fronts of World War 2.  
   
  Heinkel , Dr. Ernst - (1888-1958) Heinkel was a German aircraft designer, manufacturer, and member of the Nazi party. His company Heinkel Flugzeugwerke produced the Heinkel He 178, the world's first turbojet aircraft and jet plane, and the Heinkel He 176, the first rocket aircraft.  
   
  Heisenberg, Werner - (1901-1976) Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory. In addition, he made important contributions to nuclear physics, quantum field theory, and particle physics. Heisenberg was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics for his role in the creation of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg also played a role in the German Nuclear Research program.  
   
  Helfrich, Conrad E. L. - (1886-1962) Helfrich was an American naval officer who rose to the rank of Luitenant-Admiraal. In February 1942, Helfrich succeeded American Admiral Thomas C. Hart as commander of the American-British-Dutch-Australian naval forces in the Pacific and immediately went on the offensive. After the disastrous Battle of the Java Sea two weeks after he assumed command most of the ABDA ships had been put out of action. ABDA itself would shortly be dismantled. Helfrich spent the remainder of the war in Ceylon preparing the return of Dutch administration to the Dutch East Indies. On September 2, 1945, he signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender aboard the battleship USS Missouri on behalf of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.  
   
  Henderson Field - Henderson Field was the military airfield on around which the Battle of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands was fought and resulted in an American victory in February, 1943. The unfinished airfield was being constructed by the Japanese when the U.S. Marines invaded the island on August 7, 1942. The airfield was named Henderson Field after Lofton R. Henderson who was the commanding officer of VMSB-241 at the Battle of Midway in June 1942 and is recognized as the first Marine aviator to die during that battle while leading his squadron in attacking the Japanese aircraft carrier forces.  
   
  Henderson, Sir Nevile M. - (1882-1942) Henderson was the ambassador of Great Britain to Germany from 1937 to 1939 and believed that German Chancellor Adolf Hitler could be controlled and pushed toward peace and cooperation with the Western powers.  
   
  Hess, Rudolf W. R. - (1894-1987) Hess was a prominent Nazi politician who was Adolf Hitler's deputy in the Nazi Party during the 1930s and early 1940s. On the eve of war with the Soviet Union, he flew solo to Scotland in an attempt to negotiate peace with the United Kingdom, but was arrested and became a prisoner of war. Hess was tried at Nuremberg and sentenced to life imprisonment, which he served at Spandau Prison, Berlin until his death.  
   
  Heydrich, Reinhard - (1904-1942) Heydrich was a high-ranking German Nazi official. He was SS-Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei, chief of the Reich Main Security Office (including the SD, Gestapo and Kripo) and Deputy Reich-Protector of Bohemia and Moravia. In August 1940, he was appointed and served as President of Interpol (the international law enforcement agency). Heydrich chaired the 1942 Wannsee Conference, which discussed plans for the deportation and extermination of all Jews in German-occupied territory. In an operation named Operation Anthropoid, he was attacked in Prague on May 17, 1942 by British-trained Czech agents who had been sent to assassinate him in Prague. He died approximately one week later due to his injuries.  
   
  Himmler, Heinrich L. (1900-1945) Himmler was Reichsführer of the SS, a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party. As Chief of the German Police and later the Minister of the Interior, Himmler oversaw all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo (Secret State Police). Serving as Reichsführer and later as Commander of the Replacement (Home) Army and General Plenipotentiary for the entire Reich's administration, Himmler rose to become one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany as well as one of the persons most directly responsible for the Holocaust.  
   
  Hiranuma, Baron Kiichiro - (1867-1952) Hiranuma was a prominent pre–World War II right-wing Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5 1939 to August 30, 1939. His administration was dominated by the debate on whether or not Japan should ally itself with Nazi Germany in order to neutralize the threat posed to Japan by the Soviet Union. Hiranuma wanted an anti-communist pact, but feared that a military alliance would commit Japan to war against the United States and Great Britain. With the signing of the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact in August 1939, Hiranuma's cabinet resigned over this foreign policy issue and over the massive defeat of the Japanese Army in Mongolia during the Nomonhan Incident against the Soviet Union.  
   
  Hirohito - (1901-1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. At the start of his reign, Japan was already one of the great powers – the ninth largest economy in the world after Italy, the third largest naval country, and one of the five permanent members of the council of the League of Nations. He was the head of state under the limitation of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during Japan's imperial expansion, militarization, and involvement in World War 2. After the war, he was not prosecuted for war crimes as others were.  
   
  Hitler, Adolf - (1889-1945) Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party. He was the absolute dictator of Germany from 1934 to 1945, with the title of chancellor from 1933 to 1945 and with the title head of state (Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler ultimately wanted to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in Europe. To achieve this, he pursued a foreign policy with the declared goal of seizing Lebensraum ("living space") for the Aryan people. Hitler rearmed Germany and in 1939 invaded Poland sparking WWII. Within three years, Germany and the Axis powers had occupied most of Europe, and most of Northern Africa, East and Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean. However, with the reversal of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, the Allies gained the upper hand from 1942 onwards. By 1945, Allied armies had invaded German-held Europe from all sides. Nazi forces engaged in numerous violent acts during the war, including the systematic murder of as many as 17 million civilians, an estimated six million of whom were Jews targeted in the Holocaust. In the final days of the war, at the fall of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married his long-time mistress Eva Braun and, to avoid capture by Soviet forces less than two days later, the two committed suicide.  
   
  Hoare, Sir Samuel - (1880-1959), Hoare was a senior British Conservative politician who served in various Cabinet posts in the Conservative and National governments of the 1920s and 1930s. He was Secretary of State for Air during most of the 1920s and briefly again in 1940. He is perhaps most famous for serving as Foreign Secretary in 1935, when he authored the Hoare–Laval Pact with French Prime Minister Pierre Laval. He also served as Home Secretary from 1937 to 1939 and as British ambassador to Spain from 1940 to 1944.  
   
  Hoepner, Erich - (1886-1944) Hoepner was a German military officer who rose to the rank of Colonel General. Hoepner was a successful panzer leader, Hoepner was executed after the failed 20 July Plot in 1944.  
   
  Homma, Masaharu - (1887-1946) Homma was a Lt. General in the Imperial Japanese Army. Homma was in command of the IJA 14th Army when it successfully invaded the Philippine Islands in 1942. Homma then was the military commander of the occupied Philippine Islands. The Imperial General Headquarters regarded Homma as being too lenient with the Filipino people and was forced into retirement in August 1943. Homma was convicted of war crimes, primarily the actions of his subordinates, and executed after the war.  
   
  Hopkins, Harry L. - (1890-1946) Hopkins was one of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's closest advisers. In World War 2 he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the Allies.  
   
  Horinouchi, Kensuke - Horinouchi was the Japanese ambassador to the United States from March 1941 to July 1942.  
   
  Höss, Rudolf F. F. (1900-1947) Höss was an SS-Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel), and from May 1940 to November 1943, Höss was the first commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, where it is estimated that more than a million people were murdered. Höss was hanged in 1947 following his trial as a war criminal at Warsaw, Poland.  
   
  Hoth, Hermann "Papa" - (1885-1971) Hoth was a German military officer who rose to the rank of Colonel General during the war. Hoth is most noted as a panzer commander on the Eastern Front participating in Operation Barbarossa in 1941, the Wehrmacht's 1942 summer offensive, the attempted relief of the 6th Army in Stalingrad, the Kursk counter offensive in the summer of 1943 and the Battle of Kiev. Hoth was dismissed from command by Adolf Hitler in 1943, only to be reinstated for a short time during the last weeks of the war. After the war, he served six years in prison for war crimes.  
   
  Hull , Cordell - (1871-1955) Hull was an American politician who is best-known as the longest-serving U.S. Secretary of State, holding the position for 11 years (1933–1944) in the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during much of World War II. Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the "Father of the United Nations".  
   
  Huntziger, Charles - (1880-1941) Huntziger was a French Army officer during the First World War and World War 2 who rose to the rank of General. During World War 2, in 1939–1940, he initially commanded the Second French Army, then the Fourth Army Group in the Ardennes. Huntziger led the French delegation during the armistice negotiations and signed on behalf of France on June 22 near Compiègne. After the armistice, Huntziger became the French Government's, Secretary of War, then commander-in-chief of the land forces (September 1941). He was one of the signatories of the anti-Semitic Statute on Jews of October 3, 1940. Huntziger died on November 11, 1941 after his plane crashed trying to land at Vichy Airport as he returned from an inspection tour.  
     
   
     
   
 

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