Abridged Encyclopedia of World War 2  
  S to Szilard  
   
  St. James Declaration - The St. James Declaration was made in London in January 1942 and called for punishment of those found responsible for criminal acts perpetrated by the Germans against civilian populations, while urging the international community to avoid acts of vengeance by prosecuting war criminals through the channels of organized justice. The declaration made prosecution of war crimes one of the principal war aims of the signatories.  
   
  Saw, U - (1900 - 1948) Saw was a leading Burmese politician and Prime Minister during the colonial era before the World War 2. In November 1941, he travelled to London in an unsuccessful attempt to gain a promise from British Prime Minister Winston Churchill that Burma be granted Dominion status after the war. At the same time, he made contact with the Japanese to secure his own political future should Japan invade Burma. The British discovered incriminating papers relating to his communications with the Japanese and U Saw was detained for the duration of the war in Uganda.  
   
  Schacht, Dr. Hjalmar - (1877 - 1970) Schacht was a German economist, banker, and politician. He served as the Currency Commissioner and President of the Reichsbank under the Weimar Republic. Schacht became a supporter of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, and served in German Chancellor Adolf Hitler's government as President of the Reichsbank and Minister of Economics. As such, Schacht helped implement Hitler's policies of redevelopment, reindustrialization, and rearmament. He was forced out of the government by disagreements with Hitler and other prominent Nazis by 1936, and had no role during World War II. He became a fringe member of the German Resistance to Hitler and was imprisoned by the Nazis after the 20 July plot.  
   
  Scott, Norman - (1889 - 1942)  Scott was an American naval officer who rose to the rank of Rear Admiral during the war and was one of only two U.S. Navy admirals killed in action during a surface battle during the war. Scott participated in the 1942 invasion of Guadalcanal and Tulagi in August and the Battle of Cape Esperance in October, the U.S. Navy's first surface victory of the campaign. In November he was killed during the initial night action of the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Scott was one of only two admirals killed in a surface engagement during the war.  
   
  von der Schulenburg, Friedrich-Werner Graf - (1875 - 1944) von der Schulenburg was a German diplomat who served as the last German ambassador to the Soviet Union before Operation Barbarossa. He began his diplomatic career before World War I, serving as consul and ambassador in several countries. After the failed July 20 plot in 1944, Schulenburg was accused of being a co-conspirator and subsequently executed.  
   
  Seaborg, Glenn T. (1912 - 1999) Seaborg was an American scientist who joined the chemistry group at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago.  
   
  Second Vienna Award - The Second Vienna Award was the second of two Vienna Awards arbitrated by the Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Concluded on August 30, 1940, it reassigned the territory of Northern Transylvania (including the entire Maramureş and part of Crişana) from Romania to Hungary. It was denounced by Romania on October 22, 1941 and voided by the Allied Commission through the Armistice Agreement with Romania on September 12, 1944.  
   
  Second Cairo Conference - The Second Cairo Conference (codenamed Sextant) was held from December 4 to 6, 1943 in Cairo, Egypt. Ther conference mainly addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies.[1] The meeting was attended by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and President İsmet İnonu of the Republic of Turkey. Churchill wanted Turkey to declare war on the Axis but this position was not held by Roosevelt or İnonu. At the end of the conference, it was decided that Turkey's neutrality should be maintained. It was also decided at the conference to postpone Operation Anakim against Japan in Burma.  
   
  Seabees - Seabees is the popular name for members of the U.S. Navy Construction Battalions (CB). The units were formed on the recommendation of Rear Admiral Ben Moreell, Chief of the Navy's Bureau of Yards and Docks in December 1941. The earliest Seabees were recruited from the civilian construction trades and were placed under the leadership of the Navy's Civil Engineer Corps. Because of the emphasis on experience and skill rather than physical standards, the average age of Seabees during the early days of the war was 37. More than 325,000 men served with the Seabees in World War 2, fighting and building on six continents and more than 300 islands. In the Pacific, where most of the construction work was needed, the Seabees landed soon after the Marines and built major airstrips, bridges, roads, gasoline storage tanks, and Quonset huts for warehouses, hospitals, and housing.  
   
  Seeds, Sir William - (1882–1973) Seeds was a British diplomat who served as Ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1939 to 1940.  
   
  Selassie, Haile - (1892 - 1975) Haile Selassie I was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. He went into exile after the Italian invasion of his country in May of 1936. He spent his years of exile in the United Kingdom until he returned in May of 1941.  
   
  von Seydlitz-Kurzbach, Walther K. - (1888 - 1976) von Seydlitz-Kurzbach was a German military officer who rose to the rank of Lt. General. von Seydlitz-Kurzbach served on the Eastern Front and was captured at Stalingrad in January 1943. As a POW he became the leader of the anti-Nazi organization, the League of German Officers and a prominent member of the National Committee Free Germany. After the war von Seydlitz-Kurzbach wanted to return to Germany but his request was refused by Soviet authorities. Instead they charged him with atrocities committed against Soviet POWs and the civilian population while serviing in the German Army. In 1950, a Soviet tribunal sentenced him to 25 years’ imprisonment, but in 1955 he was released to West Germany.  
   
  Seyss-Inquart, Arthur - (1892 - 1946) Seyss-Inquart was a lawyer and later Nazi official in pre-Anschluss Austria, the Third Reich, and for wartime Germany in Poland and the Netherlands. At the Nuremberg Trials, he was found guilty of crimes against humanity and later executed.  
   
  Sherman, Frederick C. - (1888 - 1957) Sherman was an American naval officer who rose to the rank of Rear Admiral during the war. Sherman was in command of the aircraft carrier USS Lexington from 1940 until her loss in the Battle of the Coral Sea. Promoted to Rear Admiral, he served as assistant chief of staff to COMINCH Admiral Ernest J. King until the end of 1942. He served in the Fast Carrier Task Force, as Commander, Carrier Division 2 in 1943, and as Commander, Task Group 38.3 in 1944–45.  
   
  Shima, Kiyohide - (1890 - 1973) Shima was a Japanese naval officer who rose to the rank of Vice Admiral. At the start of the Pacific War, Shima was given a combat command, and led the Tulagi invasion force that occupied Tulagi in the Solomon Islands in May 1942 as part of Operation Mo. Shima was promoted to vice admiral in May 1943 and in February 1944 became Commander in Chief of the IJN 5th Fleet. During the Battle of Leyte Gulf, October 23-26, 1944, Shima led the "Second Striking Force" of three cruisers and seven destroyers in the Battle of Surigao Strait. After this disastrous loss, Shima was reassigned to command the Takao Guard District and later as the commander of the First Air Fleet.  
   
  Short, Walter C. - (1880 - 1949) Short was an American military officer who rose to the rank of Lt. General in the U.S. Army. Short was military commander responsible for the defense of U.S. military installations in Hawaii at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Short was one of the American military officers who bore the brunt of the blame for the failure to anticipate the attack. Short was removed from his command ordered back to Washington and his rank was reduced to his permanent rank of Major General.  
   
  Sikorski, Władysław E. - (1881 - 1943) Sikorski was a Polish military and political leader. During World War 2 he became Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile, Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces, and a vigorous advocate of the Polish cause in the diplomatic sphere. In July 1943, a plane carrying Sikorski plunged into the sea immediately after takeoff from Gibraltar, killing all on board except the pilot. The exact circumstances of his death have been disputed, and given rise to a number of conspiracy theories surrounding the crash and his death.  
   
  Sinclair, Sir Archibald H. M. - (1890 - 1970) Sinclair was a Scottish politician and leader of the British Liberal Party. When Winston Churchill formed an all-party coalition government in 1940, Sinclair became Secretary of State for Air. However he did not sit in the small War Cabinet, though he was invited to attend meetings discussing any political matter. As Secretary for Air, he played a leading role in planning the firebombing and destruction of Dresden.  
   
  Skorzeny, Otto - (1908 - 1975) Skorzeny was an SS-Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel) in the Waffen-SS during the war. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he was chosen as the field commander to carry out the rescue mission that freed the deposed Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from captivity. Skorzeny was also the leader of Operation Greif, in which German soldiers were to infiltrate through enemy lines posing as Americans. At the end of the war, Skorzeny was involved with the Werwolf guerrilla movement and the ODESSA network.  
   
  Slim, William J. - (1891 - 1970) Slim was a British military officer who rose to the rank of General during the war. Slim led the 14th Army, the so-called "forgotten army" in the Burma campaign.  
   
  Smith Act - The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act of 1940 is a United States federal statute that set criminal penalties for advocating the overthrow of the U.S. government and required all non-citizen adult residents to register with the government. The Act was proposed by Democratic Congressman Howard W. Smith of Virginia. Within four months after the bill was signed into law by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt 4,741,971 aliens had registered.  
   
  Smith, Walter Bedell "Beetle" - (1895 - 1961) Smith was an American military officer who rose to the rank of Lt. General during the war. Smith served as General Dwight D. Eisenhower's chief of staff at Allied Forces Headquarters during the Tunisia Campaign and the Allied invasion of Italy. Later he was Eisenhower's chief of staff at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) from 1944 to 1945.  
   
  Smuts, Jan Christiaan - (1870 - 1950) Smuts was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher. In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948.  
   
  Sneevliet, Henk - (1883 - 1942) Sneevliet was a Dutch Communist who took part in the Communist resistance against the German occupation of the Netherlands. Sneevliet founded the Marx-Lenin-Luxemburg-Front (MLL-Front resistance group that was largely engaged in producing propaganda for socialism and was heavily involved with the February strike of 1941. Sneevliet was executed by the Germans in 1942.  
   
  Snyder, Charles P. - (1879 - 1964) Snyder was an Admiral in the U.S. Navy who served as Commander Battle Force shortly before the war and as the U.S. Navy's first Naval Inspector General during World War 2.  
   
  Soong, Tse-ven - (1894 - 1971) Soong was a prominent businessman, politician, and diplomat for the Republic of China. Soong was the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1942 to 1945.  
   
  Spaak, Paul-Henri Charles - (1899 - 1972) Spaak was a Belgian Socialist politician and statesman who served as Prime Minister from May 15, 1938 – February 22, 1939.  
   
  Special Operations Executive - The Special Operations Executive was a British organization formed to conduct espionage, sabotage and reconnaissance in occupied Europe against the Axis powers, and to aid local resistance movements.  
   
  Spruance, Raymond A. - (1886 - 1969) Spruance was an American naval officer who rose to the rank of Admiral. Spruance was one of the U.S. commanders during the Battle of Midway in June 1942. During the Pacific campaign he alternated command of the Central Pacific Force with Admiral William F. “Bull” Halsey, Jr. In June 1944 Spruance defeated the Japanese fleet in the Battle of the Philippine Sea.  
   
  Somerville, Sir James F. - (1882 - 1949) Somerville was British naval officer who rose to the rank of Admiral of the Fleet. In May of 1940 Somerville helped organize the evacuation of Dunkirk. Next he was placed in command of the newly-formed Force H based in Gibraltar and was in command of the British warships that fired upon the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kébir in North Africa in July of 1940. Somerville became Commander-in-Chief, Eastern Fleet in March of 1942. He was placed in charge of the British Admiralty Delegation in Washington D.C. in October of 1944, a position he held until after the war.  
   
  Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact - The Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact was signed on April 13, 1941. The Soviets signed the treaty because it wished to improve its Far East diplomatic relations, safeguard its eastern border and concentrate on European affairs. The Japanese signed the treaty because it wished to secure its northern frontier to it could concentrate on its war with Chona and possible conflicts with the United States, Great Britain, and the Netherlands. The treaty remained valid until August 8, 1945 when the Soviet Union declared war on Japan and invaded Manchuria.  
   
  Special Operations Executive - The Special Operations Executive was a British organization in July 1940 to conduct espionage, sabotage and reconnaissance in occupied Europe against the Axis powers, and to aid local resistance movements.  
   
  Stalin, Joseph V. - (1878 - 1953) Stalin was the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death. In the years following Lenin's death in 1924, he rose to become the leader of the Soviet Union. Stalin launched a new economy with Five-Year Plans and launched a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization. During the late 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purge (also known as the "Great Terror"), a campaign to purge the Communist Party of people accused of sabotage, terrorism, or treachery. This campaign was extended to the military severely impacting the officer corps of the Red Army. In 1939 Stalin entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, followed by a Soviet invasion of Poland, Finland, the Baltics, Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. After Germany violated the pact in 1941, the Soviet Union joined the Allies to play a primary role in the Axis defeat, at the cost of the largest death toll for any country in the war. Thereafter, contradicting statements at allied conferences, Stalin installed communist governments in most of Eastern Europe, forming the Eastern bloc, behind what was referred to as an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet rule.  
   
  Standley, William H. - (1872 - 1963) Standley was a U.S. admiral who served as the Chief of Naval Operations between 1933 and 1937 and as the U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1941 until 1943.  
   
  Stark, Harold R. (1880 - 1972) Stark served as an officer in the United States Navy during World War I and World War 2. Stark rose to the rank of Admiral and was the US Navy's 8th Chief of Naval Operations, from August 1, 1939 to 26 March 1942. Stark was the U.S. Navy’s top officer at the time of Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.  
   
  van Starkenborgh, Jonkheer - (1888 - 1978) van Starkenborgh was a Dutch nobleman and statesman, primarily noted for being the last colonial Governor-General of the Netherlands East Indies. He was taken captive after accepting Japan's demands for an unconditional surrender of the islands on March 9, 1942 While the Japanese offered him to stay at his home under house arrest and receive special treatment he refused. He was ultimately interred at the Manchurian camp at Hsien, where he was held along with other prominent prisoners until the camp was liberated on August 16, 1945.  
   
  Stars and Stripes - During World War 2, the Stars and Stripes newspaper operated by but editorially separate from the U.S. War. The newspaper was printed in dozens of editions in several operating theaters.  
   
  Stilwell, Joseph W. - (1883 - 1946) Stilwell was an American military officer who rose to the rank of General. He is best known for service in the China Burma India Theater where he served as Commander, US Forces in China-Burma-India Theater of Operations and Chief of Staff to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. He was recalled from the China-Burma-India Theater in 1944 due to his continuing conflict with Chiang. He would later serve as Commanding General, Tenth Army on Okinawa. His caustic personality was reflected in the nickname "Vinegar Joe".  
   
  Stimson, Henry L. - (1867 - 1950) Stimson was an American statesman, lawyer and soldier, and a member of the Republican Party. He served as U.S. Secretary of War on two occasions (1911 - 1913 and 1940 - 1945), overseeing a military buildup prior to the First World War, the United States' entry and participation of World War 2, and the Manhattan Project. He also served as a diplomat to Nicaragua and as Governor-General of the Philippines, opposing autonomy for both. During his term as U.S. Secretary of State (1929 - 1933) he articulated the Stimson Doctrine, the cornerstone of American foreign policy prior to and during World War 2.  
   
  Strassmann, Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" - (1902 - 1980) Strassman was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in 1938, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, which led to the interpretation of their results as being from nuclear fission.  
   
  Stroop, Jurgen - (1895-1951) Stroop was an SS officer who was in charge of liquidating the Wasrsaw ghetto during the Jewish uprising in 1943. Later Stroop was appointed SS and political leader of Greece and following that he served in the same capacity in the Twelfth Army District in the Reich. He was executed by the Polish as a war criminal in 1951.  
   
  Stumme, Lt. General Georg - (1886 - 1942) Stumme was a German general most notable for his brief command of the Axis forces at the beginning of the Second Battle of El Alamein. He commanded the 2nd Light Division in the attack on Poland in 1939. Stumme also participated in the attacks on Yugoslavia and Greece. In Operation Barbarossa Stumme served under Field Marshal Fedor von Bock. Stumme and his men succeeded in capturing Mozhaisk. He then participated in the attempt to capture Stalingrad. In June 1942 some German plans were captured by Soviet forces. Hitler blamed Stumme and ordered that he be court-martialed. He was found guilty and was sentenced to five years imprisonment, but von Bock secured his release. Stumme was then sent to North Africa to join the Afrika Korps, which was confronting the British at El Alamein. During the temporary absence of Rommel, he commanded Panzer Army Africa when the British attacked. On October 24, 1942 Stumme drove to the front to review the situation. On the way to the command post his car was attacked. Although Stumme wasn’t injured by the attack he suffered a heart attack and died.  
   
  Sturges, Robert G. - (1891 - 1970) Sturges was a British military officer in the Royal Marines who rose to the rank of Major General during the war. During the war Sturges commanded British forces in the Invasion of Iceland and the Battle of Madagascar.  
   
  Sullivan brothers - The Sullivan brothers (George, Francis, Joseph, Madison, and Albert) were a set of brothers from Waterloo, Iowa who the U.S. Navy agreed to allowed to stay together throughout their service. All five would be killed when the ship they were serving aboard, the light cruiser USS Juneau was sunk on November 13, 1942, during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal.  
   
  Szilard, Leo - (1898 - 1964) Szilard was an Austro-Hungarian émigré  and physicist who conceived the nuclear chain reaction in 1933, patented the idea of a nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi, and in late 1939 wrote the letter for Albert Einstein's signature that resulted in the Manhattan Project that built the atomic bomb.  
     
   
     
   
 

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