Abridged Encyclopedia of World War 2  
  T to Tweedsmuir  
  Takagi, Takeo - (1892 - 1944) Takagi was a Japanese naval officer who rose to the rank of Admiral during the war. At the start of the Pacific War, Takagi was commanding the naval forces supporting the invasion of the invasion of the Philippine Islands and headed the task force covering the Java landings in Dutch East Indies. He was senior Japanese commander in the Battle of the Java Sea. Takagi was promoted to vice admiral in May 1942 and was the senior Japanese commander at the Battle of the Coral Sea. In November 1942, Takagi was reassigned to be commander of the Mako Guard District, and was reassigned in April 1943 to be commander of the Takao Guard District. In June 1943, he was again given a front line assignment, when he was made commander of the IJN 6th Fleet (submarines), based in the Mariana Islands. Takagi was killed in action during the Battle of Saipan in 1944. He was posthumously promoted to full admiral.  
  Tanaka, Raizo - (1892 - 1969) Tanaka was a Japanese naval officer who rose to the rank of Vice Admiral. Tanaka was specialist in the heavy torpedoes that were carried by all the destroyers and cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Tanaka mainly commanded destroyer squadrons was the primary leader of the "Tokyo Express" reinforcement and resupply shipments during the long campaign for the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.  
  Tanner, Vaino - (1881- 1966) Tanner was Finland's leading Social Democratic Party (SDP) politician. Tanner served as Prime Minister (1926–1927), Minister of Finance (1937–1939), Foreign Minister (1939–1940), and after the Winter War Minister of Trade (1940–1942).  
  Tassafaronga - The Naval Battle of Tassafaronga was a nighttime naval battle that took place November 30, 1942 between U.S. Navy and Imperial Japanese Navy warships during the Guadalcanal campaign. The battle took place in Ironbottom Sound near the Tassafaronga area on Guadalcanal. In the battle, a US warship force of five cruisers and four destroyers attempted to surprise and destroy a Japanese warship force of eight destroyers attempting to deliver food supplies to Japanese forces on Guadalcanal. Using radar, the U.S. warships opened fire and sank one of the Japanese destroyers. The rest of the Japanese warships reacted quickly and launched numerous torpedoes at the U.S. warships. The Japanese torpedoes hit and sank one US cruiser and heavily damaged three others, enabling the Japanese force to escape but also without completing the mission of delivering the food supplies.  
  Tedder, Arthur W. - (1890 - 1967) Tedder was a British senior air force commander who rose to the rank of Air Marshal. During the war he served as Chief of the Air Staff.  
  Tehran Conference - The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting held between Soviet Premier Josef Stalin, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill from November 28 to December 1, 1943. Held in the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran, it was the first of the World War 2 conferences held between all of the "Big Three" Allied leaders. Although all three of the leaders present arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran Conference was the commitment to the opening of a second front against Nazi Germany by the Western Allies. The conference also addressed relations between the Allies and Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan as well as the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three's recognition of Iran's independence.  
  Teleki, Pal - (1879 - 1941) Pal Count Teleki de Szek was prime minister of Hungary from July 19, 1920 to April 14, 1921 and from February 16, 1939 to April 2, 1941. Pál Teleki resisted German pressure in aiding Germany in invading Yugoslavia in April of 1941. After being advised that the German army had just started its march into Hungary Pal Teleki committed suicide.  
  ter Poorten, Hein - (1887 - 1968) ter Poorten was the commander of the Royal Netherlands Indies Army in World War 2. ter Poorten was also Allied land forces commander in the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDACOM), during early 1942. Following the rapid Japanese advances and the break-up of ABDACOM itt was left to him to unconditionally surrender Java to the Japanese. ter Poorten spent the rest of the war in various prisoner of war camps.  
  Terboven, Josef - (1898 - 1945) Terboven was a Nazi leader, best known as the Reichskommissar during the German occupation of Norway. Terboven committed suicide upon hearing of Germany’s surrender on May 8, 1945.  
  Theobald, Robert A. - (1884 - 1957) Theobald was a Rear Admiral in the American navy. Theobald served as Commander of Pacific Fleet Destroyers from December 1941 until May 1942, before being appointed Commander of the Northern Pacific Force ("Task Force 8") for operations in the Aleutian Islands Campaign. After suffering minor defeats against Japanese naval forces, including the Japanese capture of the Aleutian Islands of Attu and Kiska, Theobald was subsequently replaced by Rear Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid. In January 1943 Theobald was appointed Commandant of the First Naval District and of Boston Navy Yard. After the war Theobald gained notoriety with his 1954 book “The Final Secret of Pearl Harbor: The Washington Background of the Pearl Harbor Attack”, which accused the Roosevelt administration of suppressing intelligence about the attack in order to bring the United States into the war.  
  Tientsin - Tientsin is a port in northern China where Western nations were permitted to garrison the area to ensure open access to Peking after the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. The Japanese occupied the city in the summer of 1937. Until the onset of war in the Pacific theater the British, Italians, French, Germans, Soviets, and Americans maintained military missions there.  
  Timoshenko, Semyon K. (1895 - 1970) Timoshenko was a Soviet military commander and the senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. Timoshenko would ultimately be replaced as the top military commander by Soviet Marshal Josef Stalin. Timoshenko ended the war with the rank of Marshal.  
  Tiso, Jozef - (1887 - 1947) Tiso was a Slovak politician of the Slovak People's Party and priest, who became the clerofascist leader of the Slovak State, a satellite state of Nazi Germany existing between 1939 and 1945. After the end of World War II, Tiso was convicted and hanged for his activities in support of Nazism and treason.  
  Tito, Josip Broz - (1892 - 1980) Tito was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman. Tito led the Yugoslav guerrilla movement, the Partisans, during World War 2. Tito would become dictator of the country after the war.  
  Tizard, Sir Henry T. - (1885 - 1959) Tizard was an English chemist and inventor. In 1933 Tizard was appointed as chairman of the Aeronautical Research Committee and served in this post for most of World War 2. He supervised and championed the development of RDF (radio-direction finding, later to become more familiarly known as radar) in the run-up to the war. In 1940 Tizard led what became known as the “Tizard Mission” to the United States, which introduced to the U.S. the newly invented resonant-cavity magnetron and other British radar developments including the Whittle gas turbine, and the British Tube Alloys (nuclear weapons) project.  
  Todt, Fritz - (1891 - 1942) Todt was a German engineer and senior Nazi figure. In 1938, he founded the Organisation Todt, joining together government firms, private companies and the Reich Labor Service, for the construction of the "West Wall", later renamed the "Siegfried Line". In 1940, he was appointed Reich Minister for Armaments and Munitions and oversaw the work of Organisation Todt in the occupied west. After the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, he was appointed to manage the restoration of the infrastructure there. In February 1942, while flying away from the conclusion of a meeting with Hitler at the Wolfsschanze (“Wolf's Lair”) at Rastenburg, his aircraft exploded and crashed.  
  Togo, Shigenori - (1882 - 1950) Togo was Minister of Foreign Affairs for Japan at both the start and the end of the Japanese-American conflict during World War 2. Togo also served as Minister of Colonial Affairs in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater East Asia, in 1945.  
  Tojo, Hideki - (1884 - 1948) Tojo was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II. Some historians hold him responsible for the bombing of Pearl Harbor, which led to America's direct involvement in World War II. After the end of the war, Tojo was sentenced to death for war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and executed by hanging.  
  Tokyo Express - The Tokyo Express was the name given by Allied forces to the Japanese submarines and fast warships in and around New Guinea and the Solomon Islands that delivered personnel or supplies and returned to thier base all within one night so that Allied aircraft could not intercept them by day.  
  Toyoda, Teijiro (1885 - 1961) Toyoda was a Japanese naval officer who rose to the rank of Admiral. Toyoda served as Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1941.  
  Treblinka - Treblinka was a German Nazi extermination camp in German-occupied Poland. The camp, which was constructed as part of Operation Reinhard, operated between July 23, 1942 and October 19, 1943 during which approximately 870,000 men, women, and children were killed.  
  Trident Conference - The Trident Conference, officially the Third Washington Conference, was held in Washington, D.C. from May 12 to May 27, 1943, between the heads of government of the United Kingdom and the United States. The delegations were headed by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The conference was a comprehensive strategic meeting that resulted with plans for the Italian Campaign, air attacks on Nazi Germany, and the Pacific Theater being agreed upon.  
  Tripartite Conference - The Tripartite Conference was a series of 12 meetings held in Moscow in October 1943 between the foreign ministers of the United Kingdom (Anthony Eden) the United States (Cordell Hull), the Republic of China (Foo Ping-sheung) and the Soviet Union (Vyacheslav Molotov). The conference resulted in the Moscow Declaration on October 30, 1943 where the Allies, China, and the Soviet Union agreed to continue hostilities against the Axis powers until they laid down their arms on the basis of unconditional surrender, agreed to the necessity of a general international organization, that fascism would be eradicated in Italy, that the German annexation of Austria was null and void, and agreed to the basics of dealing with German war criminals.  
  Tripartite Pact - The Tripartite Pact was an agreement signed Germany, Italy, and Japan. In this defensive treaty each nation pledged mutual support in the event of attack by a power not presently involved in the European or Chinese-Japanese conflict in September of 1940. The intent was to keep the United States out of the war and taking a more active position in the Far East.  
  Tsolakoglou, Georgios - (1886 - 1948) Tsolakoglou was a Greek military officer who rose to the rank of Lt. General.  After the Germans invaded Greece in April of 1941 Tsolakoglou realized the hopelessness of the situation and took command of the Army of Epirus consisting of 14 divisions and surrendered to the Germans on April 20. Tsolakoglou became the first Prime Minister of the Greek collaborationist government during the Axis Occupation in 1941-1942. After Greece was liberated, Tsolakoglou was arrested, tried by a Special Collaborators Court in 1945 and sentenced to death. His death penalty was ultimately commuted to life imprisonment.  
  Tule Lake - During the war, nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry were incarcerated without trial or hearing. Those who protested or resisted the detention were segregated and imprisoned at the Tule Lake War Relocation Center. More than 24,000 men, women and children were confined at this facility.  
  Turner, Richmond K. - (1885 - 1961) Turner was an American naval officer who rose to the rank of Admiral during the war.  Turner was Director of War Plans in Washington, D.C. at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. In June 1942 Turner was sent to the Pacific to take command of the Amphibious Force, South Pacific Force. Over the next three years, he held a variety of senior Amphibious Force commands. He would have been in command of the amphibious component of the invasion of Japan had Japan not surrendered.  
  Tuskegee Airmen - The Tuskegee Airmen is the popular name of a group of African American pilots who fought in World War 2. Formally, they were the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the U.S. Army Air Corps.  
  USS Tutuila - The USS Tutuila (PR 4) was a gunboat in the service of the U.S. Navy from 1928 until her transfer to China under lend-lease in 1942. She was involved in an incident on July 31, 1941, when Japanese bombs landed close aboard, holing the ship at her waterline and destroying the ship's motor skimmer with its outboard motor.  
  Tweedsmuir, John Buchan, 1st Baron of - (1875 - 1940) Lord Tweedsmuir was a Scottish novelist, historian, and Unionist politician who served as Governor General of Canada from November 1935 to February 1940.  

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