The Jinan Incident  
  Friday, April 27, 1928  
  The Northern Expedition of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang resumed its advance in northeastern China.  
   
  Contrary to his standing orders from Tokyo, Japanese commander General Fukuda Hikosuke, moved troops from Tianjin into Jinan and Qingtao along the Jiaoji Railway.  
   
  Monday, April 30, 1928  
  Northern Chinese troops under Zhang Zongchang withdrew from Jinan. Kuomintang troops, acting contrary to Chiang Kai-shek’s orders, moved into the city. Matters remained tense as the Japanese took up positions at the Japanese consulate and various Japanese-controlled businesses and schools.  
   
  Thursday, May 3, 1928  
  An incident occurred between Chinese and Japanese forces near the home of a Japanese family resulting in the deaths of 12 Japanese. The British Acting Consul-General reported that he had seen the bodies of Japanese males who had been castrated. Japanese reports blamed the shooting on troops under General He Yaozu, reputed to have been responsible for the Nanjing Incident. The Chinese reported that Chinese soldiers had been attacked by Japanese. Leaders on both sides agreed on a truce and a cease-fire, and the Japanese consul general in the city pushed for peace.  
   
  The Kuomintang government would later decree that May 3rd be designated a "National Humiliation Memorial Day."  
   
  General Fukuda and his fellow general felt that they could not let the "insult" to Japanese honor go unpunished, but did not take action until they had built up stocks of food and ammunition.  
   
  Monday, May 7, 1928  
  General Fukuda issued a five point set of demands with a twelve hour deadline to accept to the team of officers sent by Chiang Kai-shek to negotiate a truce. Chiang Kai-shek judged it more important for his troops to move on to Peking than to fight in Jinan. The Japanese terms designed to be so onerous that the Chinese would have no choice but to refuse. When the Chinese refused the demands Fukuda held the negotiators, including Cai Gongshi, hostage. When Cai asked that the demands be officially stated, in order to take them to his superiors and release them to the public, his leg was broken, his teeth smashed, his tongue cut, and he was shot.  
   
  Friday, May 11, 1928  
  After fierce fighting the Japanese pushed the Chinese troops from the area. The Japanese advance was made after receiving reinforcements and supplies. The Japanese would occupy the Shandong area until March 1929.  
   
  Saturday, February 2, 1929  
  Prime Minister Tanaka Giichi and his cabinet met in an extraordinary session to formulate its policy regarding the Sino-Japanese negotiations coming out of the Jinan incident that were being conducted between C.T. Wang, the Foreign Minister of the Chinese Nationalist Government and Japanese Minister Yoshizawa.  
   
  After the Tanaka meeting high officers of the Army General Staff held a meeting and decided to insist on a guarantee after the withdrawal of troops. The conditions that military wanted were complete withdrawal of troops only after peace had been restored, emphasis on a future guarantee of security, mutual expression of regret, compensation for damages to be left to a joint expert commission, Japan to insist on the carrying out of the Sino-Japanese agreements of the Washington conference, and creation of a joint commission to protect communication systems in Shantung.  
   
  Tuesday, February 5, 1929  
  A news dispatch reported from Shanghai that an agreement of views had been reached between negotiators C.T. Wang, the Foreign Minister of the Chinese Nationalist Government and Japanese Minister Yoshizawa in Shanghai on discussions arising from the Jinan Incident. After the adjournment of the Lower House of the Diet, Japanese Prime Minister Tanaka Giichi called a meeting of the cabinet to report the progress of the negotiations.  
   
  Thursday, February 7, 1929  
  During a session of the Lower House of the Diet, Representative Keijiro Nakamura of the Minseito (Constitutional Democratic) Party demanded to know from Foreign Minister Tanaka Giichi (who also served as Prime Minister) whether the reports from Shanghai about Japan conceding to a mutual expression of regret rather than insisting on a statement of Chinese responsibility and the creation of a joint committee to determine damages were true. Tanaka decline to discuss the subject on the grounds that negotiations were ongoing.  
   
  Foreign Minister General Shirakawa Yoshinori, in a Lower House sub-committee meeting, declared that responsibility of the Jinan Incident lay with China.  
   
  Friday, February 8, 1929  
  Negotiations between C.T. Wang, the Foreign Minister of the Chinese Nationalist Government and Japanese Minister Yoshizawa in Shanghai on discussions arising from the Jinan Incident came to a deadlock over the timetables of the withdrawal of Japanese troops from Manchuria. Yoshizawa had received new instructions from Tokyo. Japan now insisted on two months for a complete evacuation while the Chinese felt that three weeks were sufficient. The change in Tokyo’s position was due to a strong stand by the Army General Staff and reflected a widespread public dissatisfaction over the loss of “face.”  
   
  Saturday, February 9, 1929  
  An extraordinary meeting of the Japanese Cabinet was held to discuss the progress of negotiations in Shanghai concerning the Jinan Incident. It was decided not to make any further concessions to the Chinese.  
   
  March 1929  
  The Tanaka cabinet introduced a supplementary bill in the Diet requesting $1,253,000 yen to fund the stationing of troops in Manchuria for an additional two months because of the Jinan Incident.  
   
  Friday, March 22, 1929  
  Prime Minister Tanaka told the Diet that two months would be a sufficient amount of time to withdraw the troops that were in Manchuria because of the Jinan Incident.  
   
  Sunday, March 24, 1929  
  The representatives of the Diet signed a provisional agreement regarding the Jinan Incident. After the approval of the agreement by the cabinet, instructions were sent to Minister Yoshizawa in Shanghai to sign the agreement. These instructions were made without the approval of Emperor Hirohito.  
   
  Thursday, March 28, 1929  
  Plenipotentiaries of Japan and China signed the Sino-Japanese Shantung Agreement. The effectiveness of the Chinese boycott of Japanese goods and resulting economic dislocations convinced the Japanese government to withdraw from Shantung. The Japanese agreed to pay the Chinese government damages, but not indemnities, and agreed to evacuate military forces from Shantung to their garrison in Tsingtao within two months. This agreement brought an end to the Jinan Incident but did not end the Chinese boycott of Japanese exports.  
   
  Tuesday, April 2, 1929  
  Prime Minister Tanaka Giichi expressed apologies to Emperor Hirohito for failing to get his approval (and the approval of the Privy Council) for the agreement with the Chinese signed on March 28 ending the Jinan Incident.  
   
  Wednesday, April 10, 1929  
  The Privy Council met in an extraordinary session in the presence of Emperor Hirohito where Prime Minister/Foreign Minister Tanaka Giichi explained that the exchange of notes between the Chinese and Japanese on March 28 without Imperial sanction that ended the Jinan incident was necessary because of the urgency of the situation and that the government would be careful in the future to observe proper procedures. Tanaka’s explanations failed to satisfy the Privy Council.  
   
  Tuesday, April 30, 1929  
  A special committee under the chairmanship of Viscount Kaneko, appointed to inquire into the exchange of notes between the Chinese and Japanese on March 28 without Imperial sanction that ended the Jinan incident, interviewed Prime Minister/Foreign Minister Tanaka Giichi and Foreign Ministry bureau and sections chiefs. The committee decided to approve the March 28 agreement.  
   
  Wednesday, May 1, 1929  
  A plenary session of the Privy Council was held where Viscount Kaneko submitted the recommendations of the special committee that the March 28 agreement with the Chinese ending the Jinan incident be approved. The Privy Council approved the recommendations and Imperial sanction was obtained. Instructions were sent to Minister Yoshizawa in Shanghai to sign the notes.  
   
  Thursday, May 2, 1929  
  Japanese Minister Yoshizawa added the Imperial signature to the agreements signed on March 28 ending the Jinan Incident.  
   
  Monday, May 6, 1929  
  The Japanese government publicly announced the Imperial sanction of the agreements signed on March 28 ending the Jinan Incident.  
     
   
     
   
 

The objective of WW2Timelines.com is to provide a day by day account of the events that lead up to and were part of the greatest conflict known to mankind. There are accounts for the activities of each particular day and timelines for subjects and personalities. It is the of this website intent to provide an unbiased account of the war. Analysis, effects caused by an event, or prior or subsequent pertinent events are presented separately and indicated as text that is italicized.

 
   
  Copyright 2011
WW2timelines.com
Contact us using our email page