The Timeline for the Second Battle of Shanghai  
  Monday, August 9, 1937  
  First Lt. Oyama Isao of the Japanese Naval Special Landing Forces attempted to enter the grounds of the Hungchiao Airport in Shanghai, a maneuver that he was not allowed to perform under terms of a 1932 ceasefire between the Japanese and Chinese. Oyama was fired upon by Chinese policemen and was killed. This event, called the Oyama Incident, is considered the catalyst of the Second Battle of Shanghai.  
   
  Tuesday, August 10, 1937  
  The Japanese consul general in Shanghai publicly apologized for the actions of First Lt. Oyama's the previous day but demanded that the Chinese police force, the Peace Preservation Corps, disarm.  
   
  Wednesday, August 11, 1937  
  Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek broke the terms of a 1932 ceasefire between the Japanese and Chinese by moving his troops into Shanghai.  
   
  Thursday, August 12, 1937  
  The Western Powers convened in an attempt to broker peace over the escalation of tensions of the Oyama Incident. The Western Powers' main motivation was not to prevent an escalation of the Second Sino-Japanese War, but instead they simply wished to protect their industrial and commercial interests in the city. In Nanjing, Japanese and Chinese representatives met, with the Japanese demanding all Chinese troops as well as the Peace Preservation Corps be removed from Shanghai. The Chinese stood firm.  
   
  Friday, August 13, 1937  
  At 9 a.m. more than 10,000 Japanese troops entered the suburbs of Shanghai, and engagements broke out in Zhabei, Wusong, and Jiangwan districts. About 3 p.m. the Japanese Army crossed over the Bazi Bridge) in the Zhabei District and attacked various centers in the city. The Chinese regulars of the 88th Division retaliated with mortar attacks. At 4 p.m. ships of the Japanese 3rd Fleet in the Huangpu and Yangtze Rivers began bombarding the Chinese positions with naval guns.  
   
  The USS Augusta (CA 31), the flagship of Commnader in Chief Asiatic Fleet Rear Admiral Harry E. Yarnell, and arrived in Shanghai on August 13 to protect the considerable American interests in the International Settlement.  
   
  Saturday, August 14, 1937  
  The Chinese Air Force under acting commanding officer, retired Captain Claire L. Chennault, launched and raid of more than 10 aircraft to attack the cruiser IJN Izumo, the flagship of the Japanese Third Fleet. The CAF mistakenly bombed British heavy cruiser HMS Cumberland (57), but their bombs felll wide. Two bombs also fell close alongside the USS Augusta (CA 31). The CAF bombs also landed in the city, killing more than 1700 civilians and wounding 1800 others. A Type 90 scout floatplane from the IJN Izumo attacked the CAF formations and shot down a fighter. A Type 95 floatplane from the light cruiser IJN Kawauchi shot down another Chinese plane.  
   
  The Japanese responded to the attack on the IJN Izumo with a bombing raid on Shanghai by planes based in Taiwan. The Japanese bombings were challenged by Captain Gao Zhihang's 4th Flying Group, which shot down six Japanese aircraft while suffering no casualties. The day would be proclaimed Air Force Day in 1940 as an instrument of bolstering Chinese morale.  
   
  A counterattack on the ground by Chinese troops commenced at 3 p.m., but with the Japanese heavily fortified in the international zone, the lightly-armed Chinese counterattack failed.  
   
  Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Chinese Nationalist Government issued a Proclamation of Self-Defense and War of Resistance.  
   
  Sunday, August 15, 1937  
  The Japanese formed the Shanghai Expeditionary Army, composed of the 3rd and 11th Divisions, under the command of General Matsui Iwane.  
   
  Monday, August 16, 1937  
  Chinese General Zhang Zhizhong changed his strategy in the Second Battle of Shanghai. Instead of persisting on the counterattack, he began instructing his men to engage in a style of fighting characterized by sneaking up to Japanese-held buildings and set the building ablaze by torches or grenades. When the Japanese troops fled the building, well-placed Chinese machine guns would strike down the fleeing men.  
   
  Tuesday, August 17, 1937  
  A deployment of Japanese light tanks drove back Chinese troops and ended the Chinese counterattack. Zhang was heavily criticized by Chiang for the inability of Chinese troops to penetrate Japanese lines, especially considering the heavy casualty numbers. Chiang would slowly take on more direct responsibilities for Shanghai's defense, eventually personally assuming the role of the overall commander.  
   
  Wednesday, August 18, 1937  
  Chinese reinforcements of the 36th Division arrived at Shanhai and attacked the docks at Hueishan. The 36th Division's attack was coordinated with a counterattack by the 87th Division at Yangshupu to assert maximum pressure on Japanese troops. Supported by tanks, the 36th Division drove off the Japanese defenders at Hueishan, but the lack of tank-infantry coordination quickly led to the loss of the docks in a Japanese counterattack once again. The attack eventually failed with the Chinese losing 90 officers and over 1,000 men.  
   
  Thursday, August 19, 1937  
  In response to developments in Shanghai, China Japanese Prime Minister Konoe Fumimaro announced that the Sino-Japanese conflict could only be resolved through war, regardless of any attempts at negotiation by third party nations. Konoe said that the initial plan of localized "containment" around the Shanghai region had now escalated to total war, with the ultimate goal of forcing the Chinese government to cooperate with Japan economically and politically.  
   
  Friday, August 20, 1937  
  Chinese anti-aircraft shell landed amongst the sailors gathered amidships on the well deck for the evening movies on the heavy cruiser USS Augusta (CA-31). Seaman 1st/Class F. J. Falgout was killed and several others were wounded. The USS Augusta was the flagship of Commnader in Chief Asiatic Fleet Rear Admiral Harry E. Yarnell and arrived in Shanghai on August 13 to protect the considerable American interests in the International Settlement.  
   
  Sunday, August 22, 1937  
  The Japanese reinforced their forces in Shanghai by landing General Matsui Iwane's 3rd, 8th, and 11th Divisions at Chuanshakou, Shizilin, and Baoshan 30 miles northeast of Shanghai under the cover of naval guns. The landing drew out some Chinese troops from the city, but naval bombardment prevented the Chinese troops from disrupting the landing.  
   
  Monday, August 23, 1937  
  Japanese forces under command of General Matsui Iwane made another large-scale landing at Liuhe, Wusong, and Chuanshakou northeast of Shanghai. The Chinese 18th Division under the command of General Chen Cheng attempted to counter the new wave of Japanese landings, but again failed under the firepower of Japanese naval gun support.  
   
  Saturday, September 11, 1937  
  Under the advice of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's German advisor Alexander von Falkenhausen, 300,000 Chinese troops dug in at Luodian. Luodian is a town in the suburbs of Shanghai that was strategically important as a transportation center.  
   
  Sunday, September 12, 1937  
  Chinese representatives requested League of Nations intervention concerning the events of the Second Battle of Shanghai. The League of Nations failed to react in any manner significant enough to make a difference.  
   
  Wednesday, September 15, 1937  
  Chinese troops abandoned their position at Luodian. Chinese casualty rates during the battle that started on September 11 reached 50% and the town could no longer be held effectively.  
   
  Thursday, September 23, 1937  
  Japan expressed official and full regret for the August 26, 1937 incident when the British Ambassador to China, Sir Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen’s car was machine-gunned by a Japanese airplane. After the Japanese response the British considered the case closed.  
   
  Friday, October 1, 1937  
  Japanese forces crossed the Yunzaobin River south of Luodian with freshly reinforced with men from Japan and Taiwan. The Japanese aimed to take the town of Dachang, which acted as a Chinese Army's communications hub.  
   
  Sunday, October 17, 1937  
  The Guanxi Army under warlord Li Zongren and General Bai Chongxi arrived at Shanghai to reinforce the Chinese position.  
   
  Monday, October 25, 1937  
  Dachang fell under Japanese control. With this position lost Chinese troops began withdrawing from parts of Shanghai.  
   
  Wednesday, October 27, 1937  
  To make sure China remained on the forefront of the world stage, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek ordered the Chinese 88th Division to defend an area on the north bank of the Suzhou River which contained the Sihang Warehouse, hoping that western observers from across the river would send news and photographs back to their home countries, and influence the upcoming Brussels conference scheduled to take place on November 6. The plan was vehemently opposed by Sun Yuanliang, the commander of the 88th Division. Unable to dissuade Chiang yet unwilling to disobey his orders, Sun and his superior Gu Zhutong decided to leave a single battalion behind as token defense. 414 officers and men of the 524th Regiment of the Chinese 88th Division was left behind to guard the warehouse, commanded by Lt. Colonel Xie Jinyuan who volunteered for the duty. For deception, Xie released the false information that 800 men were guarding the warehouse, instead of the actual number of 414, in order to confuse the Japanese; this would later lead to the popular belief that "800 heroes" defended the building.  
   
  After taking the Shanghai North Railway Station in the morning Japanese troops moved into the vicinity of the Sihang Warehouse by that afternoon. The first engagement took place at 2 p.m. when a Chinese reconnaissance team exchanged fire with approximately 50 Japanese soldiers. The first Japanese assault on the warehouse took place shortly thereafter from the west, and was ineffective. Japanese troops set fire to the northwestern corner of the warehouse, but it was extinguished by 5 p.m.  
   
  Thursday, October 28, 1937  
  The Japanese launched another assault on the Sihang Warehouse from the west was mounted at about 3 p.m. while light field artillery bombarded the northern face of the warehouse but was once again driven back. Elsewhere, Japanese troops found the electric wires and the water pipes leading into the warehouse, and promptly cut them. During the night of October 28-29, trucks came in to resupply the warehouse.  
   
  Friday, October 29, 1937  
  In the morning a 12-foot-wide Chinese flag was raised atop the Sihang Warehouse. The flag became a source of inspiration for the defenders and the Chinese citizens in Shanghai.  
   
  At noon the Japanese attacked the Sihang Warehouse from all three sides of the warehouse simultaneously with artillery and tankettes. A small group of Japanese troops tried to scale the wall, but were driven off.  
   
  Western officials in the international zone submitted a plea to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek to give up the Sihang Warehouse for "humanitarian concerns" in the face of overwhelming Japanese forces. Meanwhile, they also approached the Japanese, who agreed that they would allow the Chinese to retreat through the international zone without interference.  
   
  Saturday, October 30, 1937  
  Beginning at 7 a.m. the Japanese displayed a show of heavy firepower against the Sihang Warehouse throughout the bulk of the day. After nightfall, floodlights were set up so that the bombardment could continue.  
   
  Sunday, October 31, 1937  
  Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek gave the defenders permission to withdraw from the Sihang Warehouse in accordance with agreements brokered by Western officials in the international zone. As the clock struck midnight during the night of October 31-November 1, Lt. Colonel Xie Jinyuan and his remaining 376 men began leaving the warehouse. The Japanese, despite the earlier agreement, opened fire on the withdrawing Chinese soldiers wounding ten. The retreat was completed around 2 a.m. in the morning of November 1. The Chinese soldiers were placed under British arrest in the international zone until the start of the Pacific War. The main reason they were arrested was so that Japan could not accuse the United Kingdom of siding with the Chinese.  
   
  Friday, November 5, 1937  
  The Japanese 10th Army landed in Jinshanwei, south of Shanghai. The landing was nearly unopposed due to the concentration of Chinese troops near Dachang and other regions north of the city.  
   
  Monday, November 8, 1937  
  Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek issued a general retreat order for Chinese troops in Shanghai. This action was taken because Chiang didn’t see any positive results coming out of the Brussels conference and the city was encircled by Japanese forces.  
   
  Tuesday, November 9, 1937  
  Japanese troops began the occupation of Shanghai.  
   
  Friday, November 12, 1937  
  Shanghai was cleared of any remaining Chinese soldiers.  
     
   
     
   
 

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